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Volatility (chemistry)
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Atmosphere (unit)
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as 101325 Pa (1.01325 bar). It is sometimes used as a reference or standard pressure.Contents1 History 2 Pressure
Pressure
units and equivalencies 3 Other applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] It was originally defined as the pressure exerted by 760 mm of mercury at 0 °C and standard gravity (g = 9.80665 m/s2).[1] It was used as a reference condition for physical and chemical properties, and was implicit in the definition of the Centigrade (later Celsius) scale of temperature by defining 100 °C as being the boiling point of water at this pressure
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Color-glass Condensate
Color-glass condensate is a type of matter theorized to exist in atomic nuclei traveling near the speed of light. According to Einstein's theory of relativity, a high-energy nucleus appears length contracted, or compressed, along its direction of motion. As a result, the gluons inside the nucleus appear to a stationary observer as a "gluonic wall" traveling near the speed of light. At very high energies, the density of the gluons in this wall is seen to increase greatly
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Lattice QCD
Lattice QCD
Lattice QCD
is a well-established non-perturbative approach to solving the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory of quarks and gluons. It is a lattice gauge theory formulated on a grid or lattice of points in space and time. When the size of the lattice is taken infinitely large and its sites infinitesimally close to each other, the continuum QCD is recovered.[1][2] Analytic or perturbative solutions in low-energy QCD are hard or impossible to obtain due to the highly nonlinear nature of the strong force and the large coupling constant at low energies. This formulation of QCD in discrete rather than continuous spacetime naturally introduces a momentum cut-off at the order 1/a, where a is the lattice spacing, which regularizes the theory. As a result, lattice QCD is mathematically well-defined
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Rydberg Polaron
A Rydberg polaron
Rydberg polaron
is an exotic state of matter, created at low temperatures, in which a very large atom contains other ordinary atoms in the space between the nucleus and the electrons.[1] For the formation of this atom, scientists had to combine two fields of atomic physics: Bose-Einstein condensates and Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms are formed by exciting a single atom into a high-energy state, in which the electron is very far from the nucleus. Bose-Einstein condensates are a state of matter that is produced at temperatures close to absolute zero. Polarons are induced by using a laser to excite Rydberg atoms contained as impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate
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Quantum Hall Effect
The quantum Hall effect
Hall effect
(or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance σ undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values σ = I channel V Hall = ν e 2 h , displaystyle sigma = frac I_ text channel V_ text Hall =nu frac e^ 2 h , where Ichannel is the channel current, VHall is the Hall voltage, e is the elementary charge and h is Planck's constant. The prefactor ν is known as the filling factor, and can take on either integer (ν = 1, 2, 3,…) or fractional (ν = 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, 2/3, 3/5, 1/5, 2/9, 3/13, 5/2, 12/5,…) values
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Plasma (physics)
Plasma (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πλάσμα​, meaning 'moldable substance'[1]) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir[2] in the 1920s.[3]. Unlike the other three states, solid, liquid, and gas, plasma does not exist freely on the Earth's surface under normal conditions
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Baryonic Matter
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark). Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family of particles, which are the quark-based particles. The name "baryon" comes from the Greek word for "heavy" (βαρύς, barys), because, at the time of their naming, most known elementary particles had lower masses than the baryons. As quark-based particles, baryons participate in the strong interaction, whereas leptons, which are not quark-based, do not. The most familiar baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe. Electrons (the other major component of the atom) are leptons. Each baryon has a corresponding antiparticle (antibaryon) where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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University Of Victoria
The University
University
of Victoria ('UVic') is a major research university located in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. The University
University
of Victoria, founded in 1963, is the oldest university in British Columbia and began as Victoria College in 1903, as an affiliated branch of McGill University.[8] The University
University
of Victoria is a non-denominational institution which is mostly centred around the Greater Victoria
Greater Victoria
suburbs of Saanich and Oak Bay
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Raoult's Law
Raoult's law
Raoult's law
(/ˈrɑːuːlz/ law) is a law of thermodynamics established by French chemist François-Marie Raoult
François-Marie Raoult
in 1887. [1] It states that the partial vapor pressure of each component of an ideal mixture of liquids is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure component multiplied by its mole fraction in the mixture
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Partial Pressure
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.[1] The total pressure of an ideal gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. It relies on the following isotherm relation: V x V t o t = p x p t o t = n x n t o t displaystyle frac V_ x V_ tot = frac p_ x p_ tot = frac n_ x n_ tot Vx is the partial volume of any individual gas component (X) Vtot is the total volume of the gas mixture px is the partial pressure of
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Clausius–Clapeyron Relation
The Clausius–Clapeyron relation, named after Rudolf Clausius[1] and Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron,[2] is a way of characterizing a discontinuous phase transition between two phases of matter of a single constituent. On a pressure–temperature (P–T) diagram, the line separating the two phases is known as the coexistence curve. The Clausius–Clapeyron relation
Clausius–Clapeyron relation
gives the slope of the tangents to this curve
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