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Voivodeships Of Poland
A województwo ([vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ]; plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, and is commonly translated in English as "province".[1] Województwo is also rendered in English by "voivodeship" (/ˈvɔɪvoʊdʃɪp/) or a variant spelling.[2] The Polish local government reforms
Polish local government reforms
adopted in 1998, which went into effect on 1 January 1999, created sixteen new voivodeships. These replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from 1 July 1975, and bear greater resemblance (in territory but not in name) to the voivodeships that existed between 1950 and 1975. Today's voivodeships are mostly named after historical and geographical regions, while those prior to 1998 generally took their names from the cities on which they were centered
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Ministries Of Poland
The ministries of Poland
Poland
are the various departments performing functions implemented by the Polish government. Each ministry is headed by a governmental minister selected by the Prime Minister, who sits in the collective executive Council of Ministers. The current competences and regulations of the ministries were established under a series of central administrative reforms carried out by prime ministers Józef Oleksy
Józef Oleksy
and Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz between 1996 and 1997.[1][2] Under legal regulations, the cabinet can create, combine, or dissolve ministries, with the Prime Minister determining the scope and responsibilities of ministers
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Human Rights In Poland
Human rights in Poland are guaranteed by the second chapter of the Constitution. Poland is a party to all important international agreements relevant to human rights, including the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Helsinki Accords, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.Contents1 History 2 Modern-day2.1 The status of women 2.2 LGBT rights 2.3 Third-party evaluation3 Opinions of NGOs 4 See also 5 References 6 External links 7 Further readingHistory[edit] Elements of what is called now human rights may be found in early times of the Polish state. The Statute of Kalisz, the General Charter of Jewish Liberties (issued in 1264) introduced numerous right for the Jews in Poland, leading to an autonomous "nation within a nation"
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President Of Poland
The President of the Republic of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland. His or her rights and obligations are determined in the Constitution of Poland. The president heads the executive branch. In addition the president has a right to dissolve the parliament in certain cases[1] and represents Poland
Poland
in the international arena.Contents1 History 2 Election 3 Powers 4 Presidential residencies and properties 5 Acting President of Poland 6 Former Presidents 7 Living former Presidents 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] The first president of Poland, Gabriel Narutowicz, was sworn in as president of the Second Republic on 11 December 1922. He was elected by the National Assembly (the Sejm
Sejm
and the Senate) under the terms of the 1921 Constitution of Poland
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Andrzej Duda
Andrzej Sebastian Duda (Polish pronunciation: [ˈandʐɛj ˈduda] ( listen); born 16 May 1972) is a Polish politician who is the sixth and current President of Poland, holding the office since 6 August 2015.[1] Before his tenure as President, Duda was a member of Polish Lower House (Sejm) from 2011 to 2014 and the European Parliament
European Parliament
from 2014 to 2015.[2] Born in Kraków
Kraków
in the former Polish People's Republic, Duda studied law at the Jagiellonian University, obtaining the position of assistant in the Administrative Law Department of Jagiellonian University in 2001 and a PhD degree in law in 2005, not graduating due to subsequently leaving the university to focus more on his political career
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List Of Prime Ministers Of Poland
Contents1 Prime Ministers of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1813) 2 Presidents of the Polish National Government (1830–1831) 3 Presidents of the National Government of the Republic of Poland (1846) 4 President of the National Committee in Poznań (1848) 5 Presidents of the Polish National Government (1863–1864) 6 Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Poland (1917–1918) 7 Prime Ministers of the People's Republic (1918) 8 Prime Ministers of the Republic of Poland (1918–1939) 9 Prime Ministers of the Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile (1939–1990)9.1 Prime Ministers of the Government-in-Exile (with little or no international recognition, 1945–1990) 9.2 Chairmen of the Executive for National Unity (1954–1972)10 Prime Ministers of the Polish People's Republic (1944–1989) 11 Prime Ministers of the Republic of Poland (1989–present) 12 See also 13 External linksPrime Ministers of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1813)[edit] Main article: Duchy
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Mateusz Morawiecki
Mateusz Jakub Morawiecki (born 20 June 1968) is a Polish politician, manager, banker, economist, lawyer, historian who is currently the Prime Minister of Poland. He has served as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Development and Minister of Finance in the cabinet of Beata Szydło. He also served as chairman of Bank Zachodni WBK
Bank Zachodni WBK
from 2007 to 2015.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career2.1 Minister of Finance (2016–2018) 2.2 Prime Minister (2017–present)3 Other activities 4 Recognition 5 Personal life 6 State visits gallery 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Morawiecki was born on 20 June 1968 in Wrocław, to Kornel Morawiecki (founder of Fighting Solidarity) and his wife, Jadwiga. At the age of 12, Morawiecki was already active in the Polish anti-communist opposition, becoming involved in the process of illegal duplication of political pamphlets
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Parliament Of Poland
Government (64)[1]     PiS (64)Opposition (33)[1]     PO (33)Others (3)     Independents (not in any faction) (3)[1] Sejm
Sejm
political groupsGovernment     PiS (234)Opposition     PO (133)      K'15 (36)      .N (30)      PSL (16)      Free and Solidary (3)      Independent (8)Elections
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Administrative Subdivision
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration. Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments. Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces, which, in turn, are divided into counties, which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories, with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control
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Senate Of Poland
Government
Government
(66)[1]     PiS (66)Opposition (31)[1]     PO (31)Others (3)[1]     Independents (3)ElectionsVoting systemFirst-past-the-postLast electionOctober 2015Meeting placeThe Sejm
Sejm
Building Śródmieście, WarsawWebsitesenat.gov.plThe Senate
Senate
(Polish: Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'. The history of the Polish Senate
Senate
is rich in tradition and stretches back over 500 years. It was one of the first constituent bodies of a bicameral parliament in Europe and existed without hiatus until the dismemberment of the Polish state in 1795. After a brief period of existence in the inter-war period the Senate
Senate
was again abolished (by many accounts illegally) by the authorities of the People's Republic of Poland
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Sejm
Government (239)     Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(238)      Independents (1)[a] Confidence and supply (8)     Free and Solidary
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Judiciary Of Poland
Judiciary of Poland
Poland
is a responsibility, as defined by the constitution of Poland, of a four-tier court system: the Supreme Court of Poland, the common courts, administrative courts (including the Supreme Administrative Court
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Constitutional Tribunal (Poland)
1982-constitutional amendment establishing the Constitutional Tribunal 1986-the beginning of activityCountry PolandLocation WarsawComposition method Prime ministerial nomination with Sejm
Sejm
RP confirmation President and Vice President appointed by President of the RepublicAuthorized by Constitution of the Republic of PolandJudge term length 9 years, only one termNo. of positions 15Website www.trybunal.gov.plPresidentCurrently Julia PrzyłębskaSince 21 December 2016Vice PresidentCurrently Prof
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Supreme Court Of Poland
The Supreme Court (Polish: Sąd Najwyższy) of the Republic of Poland supervises the adjudication in:General courts - these are district, regional, and appeal courts. They adjudicate in the areas of civil, criminal, family and labour law. Military courts - that is circuit and garrison courts. They deal with matters relating to crimes committed by soldiers in active service, civilian employees in military units, and prisoners of war.The Supreme Court is the court of last resort of appeal against judgements in the lower courts. It also passes resolutions to clarify specific legal provisions and resolve disputable questions in specific cases. These however are not (at least technically) legally binding. It is located in Warsaw. The President of the Republic of Poland
Poland
appoints Supreme Court judges for an indefinite period. This is done upon a motion of the National Judicial Council
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