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Vocal Fold Nodule
Vocal fold nodules are bilaterally symmetrical benign white masses that form at the midpoint of the vocal folds.[1] Although diagnosis involves a physical examination of the head and neck, as well as perceptual voice measures, visualization of the vocal nodules via laryngeal endoscopy remains the primary diagnostic method.[2][3] Vocal fold nodules interfere with the vibratory characteristics of the vocal folds by increasing the mass of the vocal folds and changing the configuration of the vocal fold closure pattern.[1][2][4] Due to these changes, the quality of the voice may be affected.[1] As such, the major perceptual signs of vocal fold nodules include vocal hoarseness and breathiness.[4][5] Other common symptoms include vocal fatigue, soreness or pain lateral to the larynx, and reduced frequency and intensity range.[1][4][5] Airflow levels during speech may also be increased.[1] Vocal fold nodules are thought to be the result of vocal fold tissue trauma caused by excessive mechanic
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Place Of Articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and the phonation, it gives the consonant its distinctive sound. The terminology in this article has been developed for precisely describing all the consonants in all the world's spoken languages
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Pathology
Pathology
Pathology
(from the Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" whence the English word "path" is derived by transliteration, and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant component of the causal study of pathogens and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Hence, 'the study of paths', by which disease comes. The term pathology itself may be used broadly to refer to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices (including plant pathology and veterinary pathology), or more narrowly to describe work within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease—mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples
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Falsetto
Falsetto
Falsetto
(Italian pronunciation: [falˈsetto]; Italian diminutive of falso, "false") is the vocal register occupying the frequency range just above the modal voice register and overlapping with it by approximately one octave. It is produced by the vibration of the ligamentous edges of the vocal cords, in whole or in part
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Tobacco Smoking
Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.) The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
and South America.[1] Tobacco
Tobacco
was introduced to Eurasia
Eurasia
in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes
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Alcoholic Drink
An alcoholic drink, or alcoholic beverage, is a drink that contains alcohol (ethanol), a depressant which in low doses causes euphoria, reduced anxiety, and sociability and in higher doses causes drunkenness, stupor and unconsciousness. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, and alcoholism. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.[1] Some countries ban such activities entirely, but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014.[2] Alcohol
Alcohol
is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world
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Pharmaceutical Drug
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Recreational Drug Use
Recreational drug
Recreational drug
use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user. When a psychoactive drug enters the user's body, it induces an intoxicating effect. Generally, recreational drugs are in three categories: depressants (drugs that induce a feeling of relaxation and calm); stimulants (drugs that induce a sense of energy and alertness); and hallucinogens (drugs that induce perceptual distortions such as hallucination). In popular practice, recreational drug use generally is a tolerated social behaviour, rather than perceived as the serious medical condition of self-medication
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Vocal Rest
Vocal rest or voice rest is the process of resting the vocal folds by not speaking and singing typically following viral infections that cause hoarseness in the voice, such as the common cold or influenza or more serious vocal disorders such as chorditis or laryngitis.[1] Vocal rest is also recommended after surgery to removal of vocal fold lesions, such as vocal fold cysts.[2] The purpose of vocal rest is to hasten recovery time. It is believed that vocal rest, along with rehydration, will significantly decrease recovery time after a cold.[3] It is generally believed, however, that if one needs to communicate one should speak and not whisper. The reasons for this differ; some believe that whispering merely does not allow the voice to rest and may have a dehydrating effect,[4] while others hold that whispering can cause additional stress to the larynx.[5] References[edit]^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-10
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Lung
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung
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Resonance
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies. Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system's resonant frequencies or resonance frequencies. At resonant frequencies, small periodic driving forces have the ability to produce large amplitude oscillations, due to the storage of vibrational energy.Contents1 Overview 2 Examples2.1 Tacoma Narrows Bridge 2.2 International Space Station3 Types of resonance3.1 Mechanical and acoustic resonance 3.2 Electrical resonance 3.3 Optical resonance 3.4 Orbital resonance 3.5 Atomic, particle, and molecular resonance4 Theory 5 Resonators 6 Q factor 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOverview[edit]
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Quality Of Life
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life. It observes life satisfaction, including everything from physical health, family, education, employment, wealth, religious beliefs, finance and the environment.[1] QOL has a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, politics and employment. It is important not to mix up the concept of QOL with a more recent growing area of health related QOL (HRQOL[2])
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Oscillation
Oscillation
Oscillation
is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation
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Vocal Range
Vocal range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate
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Wound
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound)
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