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Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov,[a] better known by the alias Lenin[b] (/ˈlɛnɪn/;[1] 22 April 1870[2] – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia
Russia
from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia
Russia
and then the wider Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism. Born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin
Lenin
embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution
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Eastern Slavic Naming Customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs
are the traditional ways of identifying a person by name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian: in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
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Patronymic
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic),[1][2] or an even earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic. Each is a means of conveying lineage. In such instances, a person is usually referred to by their given name, rather than their patronymic. Patronymics are still in use, including mandatory use, in many countries worldwide, although their use has largely been replaced by or transformed into patronymic surnames
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Surname
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).[1] Depending on the culture all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe
Europe
and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families that claim a connection to nobility even three are used. Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world
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12th Politburo Of The Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
A politburo (/ˈpɒlɪtˌbjʊəroʊ/) or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.[1]Contents1 Names 2 History 3 Socialist states 4 Trotskyist
Trotskyist
parties 5 See also 6 ReferencesNames[edit] The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian Politbyuro (Политбюро), itself a contraction of Politicheskoye Byuro (Политическое бюро, "Political Bureau"). The Spanish term Politburó is directly loaned from Russian, as is the German Politbüro
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11th Politburo Of The Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
A politburo (/ˈpɒlɪtˌbjʊəroʊ/) or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.[1]Contents1 Names 2 History 3 Socialist states 4 Trotskyist
Trotskyist
parties 5 See also 6 ReferencesNames[edit] The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian Politbyuro (Политбюро), itself a contraction of Politicheskoye Byuro (Политическое бюро, "Political Bureau"). The Spanish term Politburó is directly loaned from Russian, as is the German Politbüro
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10th Politburo And The 10th Secretariat Of The Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
Secretariat may refer to: Secretariat (administrative office)Contents1 Name 2 Intergovernmental entities 3 Governmental entities 4 See alsoName[edit] Secretariat (horse), racehorse that won the Triple Crown in 1973 Secretariat (film), 2010 film about the ra
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Law
Law
Law
is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.[2] Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein
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Government Of The Soviet Union
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union. Its head of government was the officeholder generally known in the West as the Premier of the Soviet Union. However, Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was an one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), which had its power entrenched in the Constitution of the Soviet Union. The Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de facto the highest policy-making organ in the country and drafted government policy, with the Government being subordinate to the Party.[1] The members of the Soviet Government—people's commissars, ministers, and heads of state committees—were recommended by the Premier and appointed by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
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Council Of Labour And Defence
The Council of Labor and Defense
Council of Labor and Defense
(Russian: Совет труда и обороны, Sovet Truda i Oborony, Latin acronym: STO), first established as the Council of Workers' and Peasants' Defense in November 1918, was an agency responsible for the central management of the economy and production of military materiel in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and in its successor state, the Soviet Union. During the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
of 1917-1922 the council served as an emergency "national economic cabinet", issuing emergency decrees in an effort to sustain industrial production for the Red Army amidst economic collapse. The Council, a commission of the Council of People's Commissars, included among its executive body such top-ranking Bolshevik
Bolshevik
leaders as V. I. Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin, who oversaw a burgeoning professional apparatus
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Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova
Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova
Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova
(Russian: Мари́я Ильи́нична Улья́нова; 18 February [O.S. 6 February] 1878, Simbirsk
Simbirsk
– 12 June 1937, Moscow) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and politician and a younger sister of Vladimir Lenin and Anna Ulyanova. Biography[edit] Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova
Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova
was born on 6 (18) February 1878 in Simbirsk and was the youngest child in the family of the director of public schools Ilya Nikolaevich Ulyanov and his wife Maria Alexandrovna. In her family she was called "Manyasha". She studied first in the Simbirsk
Simbirsk
gymnasium, then in Moscow, which she graduated in 1893. In 1895 she applied to the physico-chemical department of the mathematical faculty of the Higher (Bestuzhev) women's courses in St. Petersburg
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Anna Ulyanova
Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova-Ulyanova (Russian: Анна Ильинична Елизарова-Ульянова; 26 August [O.S. 14 August] 1864, Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
– 19 October 1935, Moscow) was a Russian revolutionary and a Soviet stateswoman. The older sister of Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and of Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova, she married Mark Timofeyevich Yelizarov (ru) (1863-1919), who became Soviet Russia's first People's Commissar for Transport (in office, 1917-1918). In 2011 the State Historical Museum
State Historical Museum
in Moscow
Moscow
put on display a 1932 letter from Anna to Joseph Stalin, in which she reveals that Lenin's maternal grandfather was a Jewish native of Zhitomir
Zhitomir
who converted in order to leave the Pale of Settlement
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Pseudonym
A pseudonym (/ˈsjuːdənɪm/ or /ˈsuːdənɪm/ SEW-də-nim) or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name (orthonym).[1] Pseudonyms include stage names and user names (both called screen names), ring names, pen names, nicknames, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, and regnal names of emperors, popes, and other monarchs. Historically, they have often taken the form of anagrams, Graecisms, and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym.[2] Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – usually adopted to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, and computer hackers' handles
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire
Empire
(Russian: Российская Империя) or Russia
Russia
was an empire that existed across Eurasia
Eurasia
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.[6] The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (poem)
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Владимир Ильич Ленин) is an epic poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky
Vladimir Mayakovsky
written in 1923-1924. First fragments of it appeared in October 1924 in numerous Soviet newspapers, then, as a separate edition it came out in February 1925 via Leningrad's Gosizdat.[1][2]Contents1 Background 2 History 3 Critical reception 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Mayakovsky's four-poem Lenin Cycle started in April 1920 with "Vladimir Ilyich!" published in the days when Vladimir Lenin's 50th birthday was celebrated all over the country. Then in 1923 came "We Do Not Believe!" (Мы не верим!), written in the wake of the news of Lenin's fatal illness. It was at that time that the idea of an epic poem on the Russian revolutionary leader was born
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