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Virulence Factor
VIRULENCE FACTORS are molecules produced by bacteria , viruses , fungi , and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following: * colonization of a niche in the host (this includes attachment to cells) * immunoevasion, evasion of the host's immune response * immunosuppression , inhibition of the host's immune response * entry into and exit out of cells (if the pathogen is an intracellular one) * obtain nutrition from the hostSpecific pathogens possess a wide array of virulence factors. Some are chromosomally encoded and intrinsic to the bacteria (e.g. capsules and endotoxin ), whereas others are obtained from mobile genetic elements like plasmids and bacteriophages (e.g. some exotoxins). Virulence
Virulence
factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread through horizontal gene transfer , and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens
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Hyaluronic Acid
HYALURONIC ACID (HA; conjugate base HYALURONATE), also called HYALURONAN, is an anionic , nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective , epithelial , and neural tissues . It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
, and can be very large, with its molecular weight often reaching the millions. One of the chief components of the extracellular matrix , hyaluronan contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration, and may also be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors . The average 70 kg (154 lb) person has roughly 15 grams of hyaluronan in the body, one-third of which is turned over (degraded and synthesized) every day. Hyaluronic acid
Hyaluronic acid
is also a component of the group A streptococcal extracellular capsule , and is believed to play a role in virulence
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica
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Neisseria Meningitidis
NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, often referred to as MENINGOCOCCUS, is a Gram-negative
Gram-negative
bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia , a life-threatening sepsis . The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs. About 10% of adults are carriers of the bacteria in their nasopharynx . As an exclusively human pathogen it is the main cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, causing developmental impairment and death in about 10% of cases. It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically , mainly Africa and Asia. It occurs worldwide in both epidemic and endemic form. N. meningitidis is spread through saliva and respiratory secretions during coughing, sneezing, kissing, chewing on toys and even freshwater
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Hemolysin
HEMOLYSINS or HAEMOLYSINS are lipids and proteins that cause lysis of red blood cells by destroying their cell membrane . Although the lytic activity of some microbe-derived hemolysins on red blood cells may be of great importance for nutrient acquisition, many hemolysins produced by pathogens do not cause significant destruction of red blood cells during infection. Although hemolysins are capable of doing this for red blood cells in vitro. As mentioned above, most hemolysins are protein compounds, but others are lipids biosurfactants
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Lipase
A LIPASE (/ˈlaɪpeɪs/ , /ˈlɪpeɪs/ , /-peɪz/ ) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids ). Lipases are a subclass of the esterases . Lipases perform essential roles in the digestion , transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides , fats , oils ) in most, if not all, living organisms . Genes
Genes
encoding lipases are even present in certain viruses . Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of a lipid substrate (A1, A2 or A3)(small intestine). For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system , converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and two fatty acids . Several other types of lipase activities exist in nature, such as phospholipases and sphingomyelinases , however these are usually treated separately from "conventional" lipases
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Deoxyribonuclease
A DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE (DNASE, for short) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone, thus degrading DNA. Deoxyribonucleases are one type of nuclease , a generic term for enzymes capable of hydrolyzing phosphodiester bonds that link nucleotides. A wide variety of deoxyribonucleases are known, which differ in their substrate specificities, chemical mechanisms, and biological functions. CONTENTS * 1 Modes of action * 2 Uses of deoxyribonucleases * 3 Types of deoxyribonucleases * 4 Assay of deoxyribonucleases * 5 Notes and references MODES OF ACTIONSome DNases cut, or "cleave", only residues at the ends of DNA molecules (exodeoxyribonucleases , a type of exonuclease ). Others cleave anywhere along the chain (endodeoxyribonucleases , a subset of endonucleases )
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Antiphagocytic
In cell biology , PHAGOCYTOSIS (from Ancient Greek φαγεῖν (phagein) , meaning 'to devour', κύτος, (kytos) , meaning 'cell', and -osis, meaning 'process') is the process by which a cell —often a phagocyte or a protist —engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome . It is distinct from other forms of endocytosis like pinocytosis that involves the internalization of extracellular liquids. Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax . In an organism's immune system , phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris
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Phagocytosis
In cell biology , PHAGOCYTOSIS (from Ancient Greek φαγεῖν (phagein), meaning 'to devour', κύτος, (kytos), meaning 'cell', and -osis, meaning 'process') is the process by which a cell —often a phagocyte or a protist —engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome . It is distinct from other forms of endocytosis like pinocytosis that involves the internalization of extracellular liquids. Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis
is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax . In an organism's immune system , phagocytosis is a major mechanism used to remove pathogens and cell debris
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Immunoglobulin
An ANTIBODY (AB), also known as an IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IG), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses . The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the harmful agent , called an antigen , via the Fab\'s variable region . Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance
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Virus Latency
INFLUENZA VIRUS LIFE CYCLE * Entry * Replication * Latency * Shedding VIRUS LATENCY (or VIRAL LATENCY) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle. A latent viral infection is a type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic viral infection. Latency is the phase in certain viruses' life cycles in which, after initial infection, proliferation of virus particles ceases. However, the viral genome is not fully eradicated. The result of this is that the virus can reactivate and begin producing large amounts of viral progeny without the host being infected by new outside virus, denoted as the lytic part of the viral life cycle, and stays within the host indefinitely. Virus latency is not to be confused with clinical latency during the incubation period when a virus is not dormant
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Murinae
Abditomys
Abditomys
Abeomelomys Aethomys Anisomys Anonymomys †Ante
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Gene
A GENE is a sequence of DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression , the DNA
DNA
is first copied into RNA
RNA
. The RNA
RNA
can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits . These genes make up different DNA
DNA
sequences called genotypes . Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions
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Ecological Niche
In ecology , a NICHE (CanE , UK : /ˈniːʃ/ or US : /ˈnɪtʃ/ ) is a term with a variety of meanings related to the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (for example, by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators , parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (for example, limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey). "The type and number of variables comprising the dimensions of an environmental niche vary from one species to another the relative importance of particular environmental variables for a species may vary according to the geographic and biotic contexts". The notion of ecological niche is central to ecological biogeography , which focuses on spatial patterns of ecological communities
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Opsonization
An OPSONIN (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell). Opson in ancient Greece referred to the delicious side-dish of any meal, versus the sitos, or the staple of the meal. Opsonization (also, opsonisation) is the molecular mechanism whereby molecules, microbes, or apoptotic cells are chemically modified to have stronger interactions with – to be more "delicious" to – cell surface receptors on phagocytes and NK cells. With the antigen coated in opsonins, binding to immune cells is greatly enhanced. Opsonization also mediates phagocytosis via signal cascades from cell surface receptors. Opsonins aid the immune system in a number of ways
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Lytic Cycle
The LYTIC CYCLE (/ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək ), is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction , the other being the lysogenic cycle . The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA
DNA
exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA
DNA
in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates using the host DNA
DNA
machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a free floating separate molecule to the host DNA
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