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Virulence Factor
VIRULENCE FACTORS are molecules produced by bacteria , viruses , fungi , and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following: * colonization of a niche in the host (this includes attachment to cells) * immunoevasion, evasion of the host's immune response * immunosuppression , inhibition of the host's immune response * entry into and exit out of cells (if the pathogen is an intracellular one) * obtain nutrition from the hostSpecific pathogens possess a wide array of virulence factors. Some are chromosomally encoded and intrinsic to the bacteria (e.g. capsules and endotoxin ), whereas others are obtained from mobile genetic elements like plasmids and bacteriophages (e.g. some exotoxins). Virulence
Virulence
factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread through horizontal gene transfer , and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens
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Bacteria
Actinobacteria (high-G+C ) Firmicutes (low-G+C ) Tenericutes (no wall ) * GRAM NEGATIVE / OUTER MEMBRANE PRESENT Aquificae Bacteroidetes / Fibrobacteres Chlorobi ( FCB group ) Chlamydiae Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Verrucomicrobia / Chlamydiae ( PVC group ) Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes * UNKNOWN / UNGROUPED Acidobacteria Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae SYNONYMS Eubacteria Woese common noun BACTERIA, singular BACTERIUM) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms
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Virus
I: ds DNA viruses II: ss DNA viruses III: ds RNA viruses IV: (+)ss RNA viruses V: (−)ss RNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A VIRUS is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology , a sub-speciality of microbiology
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Fungi
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla incertae sedis Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/ ; plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals
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Protozoa
In some systems of biological classification , the PROTOZOA are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, PROTOZOA were defined as single-celled animals or organisms with animal -like behaviors, such as motility and predation . The group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the "protophyta ", which were considered to be plant-like, as they are capable of photosynthesis . The terms _protozoa_ and _protozoans_ are now mostly used informally to designate single-celled, non-photosynthetic protists , such as the ciliates , amoebae and flagellates . The term Protozoa was introduced in 1818 by German paleontologist and zoologist Georg August Goldfuß for a taxonomic class , but in later classification schemes the group was elevated to higher ranks, including phylum , subkingdom and kingdom
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Immunosuppression
IMMUNOSUPPRESSION is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system . Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. In general, deliberately induced immunosuppression is performed to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant , Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant , or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren\'s syndrome , or Crohn\'s disease . This is typically done using medications, but may involve surgery (splenectomy ), plasmapharesis , or radiation. A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for some other reasons ( chemotherapy or HIV
HIV
), is said to be immunocompromised
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Chromosome
A CHROMOSOME (from ancient Greek : χρωμόσωμα, _chromosoma, chroma_ means color, _soma_ means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome ) of an organism. Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division . Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once ( S phase ), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere , resulting in an X-shaped structure. The original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids . During metaphase, when a chromosome is in its most condensed state, the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome. In this highly condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms . Some species such as certain bacteria , which lack histones , also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA
DNA

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Endotoxin
LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and ENDOTOXINS, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond ; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria , and elicit strong immune responses in animals. The term lipooligosaccharide ("LOS") is used to refer to a low-molecular-weight form of bacterial lipopolysaccharides
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Mobile Genetic Elements
MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS (MGE) are a type of DNA
DNA
that can move around within the genome . They include: * Transposons (also called transposable elements) * Retrotransposons
Retrotransposons
* DNA
DNA
transposons * Insertion sequences * Plasmids * Bacteriophage elements, like Mu , which integrates randomly into the genome * Group II introns * Group I introns The total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome may be referred to as the mobilome . Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"
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Plasmid
A PLASMID is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found in bacteria as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms . In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance . While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning , serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms
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Bacteriophage
A BACTERIOPHAGE /ˈbækˈtɪər.i.oʊˌfeɪdʒ/ , also known informally as a _PHAGE_ /ˈfeɪdʒ/ , is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium . The term is derived from "bacteria" and the Greek : φαγεῖν (_phagein_), "to devour". Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes . Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm . Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere . Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It’s estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined
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Horizontal Gene Transfer
HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER (HGT) or LATERAL GENE TRANSFER (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring. HGT is an important factor in the evolution of many organisms. Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence . It often involves temperate bacteriophages and plasmids . Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F -pilus , subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming medically challengeing to deal with
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Escherichia Coli O157
ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli. It is a cause of disease , typically foodborne illness of the "COLONIC ESCHERICHIOSIS" type, through consumption of contaminated and raw food, including raw milk. Infection with this type of pathogenic bacteria may lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea , and to kidney failure; these have been reported to cause the deaths of children younger than five years of age, of elderly patients, and of patients whose immune systems are otherwise compromised. Transmission is via the fecal–oral route , and most illness has been through distribution of contaminated raw leaf green vegetables, undercooked meat and raw milk
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Virulence
VIRULENCE is a pathogen or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host. In the context of gene for gene systems, often in plants, virulence refers to a pathogen's ability to infect a resistant host. In most other contexts, especially in animal systems, virulence refers to the degree of damage caused by a microbe to its host . The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors . The noun virulence derives from the adjective virulent. Virulent can describe either disease severity or a pathogen's infectivity. The word virulent derives from the Latin word virulentus, meaning "a poisoned wound" or "full of poison." In an ecological context, virulence can be defined as the host's parasite-induced loss of fitness
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Gram-negative Bacteria
GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA are a group of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial differentiation. They are characterized by their cell envelopes , which are composed of a thin peptidoglycan cell wall sandwiched between an inner cytoplasmic cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane . Gram-negative bacteria are spread worldwide, in virtually all environments that support life. The gram-negative bacteria include the model organism _ Escherichia coli _, as well as many pathogenic bacteria , such as _ Pseudomonas aeruginosa _, _Neisseria gonorrhoeae _, _ Chlamydia trachomatis _, and _ Yersinia pestis _. Several classes of antibiotics target gram-negative bacteria specifically, including aminoglycosides and carbapenems
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Host-pathogen Interface
The HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTION is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This term is most commonly used to refer to disease -causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host , whether they cause disease or not. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear
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