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Vir Illustris
The title VIR ILLUSTRIS ("illustrious man") is used as a formal indication of standing in late antiquity to describe the highest ranks within the senates of Rome and Constantinople
Constantinople
. All senators had the title vir clarissimus ("very famous man"); but from the mid fourth century onwards, vir illustris and vir spectabilis ("admirable man", a lower rank than illustris) were used to distinguish holders of high office. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Offices * 1.3 Later developments * 2 Written forms * 3 References * 4 Notes HISTORYORIGINSThe custom of Roman senators of late antiquity appending the title of vir clarissimus to their names developed gradually over the first two centuries. During the fourth century, the senatorial order greatly increased in number, so that the title became more common and new titles were devised to distinguish senators of a higher dignity, namely vir spectabilis and vir illustris
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Notitia Dignitatum
The _NOTITIA DIGNITATUM_ ( Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of very few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions , and army units . It is usually considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire in the AD 390s. However, the text does not date its own authorship or accuracy, and omissions complicate ascertaining its date from its content
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Late Antiquity
LATE ANTIQUITY is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe , the Mediterranean world, and the Near East . The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown , after the publication of his seminal work _The World of Late Antiquity _ (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire 's Crisis of the Third Century (c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the early Islamic period (7th–9th centuries), following the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople Shown within Turkey ALTERNATE NAME Byzantion, Miklagard/Miklagarth, Tsargrad, Basileuousa (Queen of Cities), Megalopolis (the Great City) LOCATION Istanbul , Istanbul Province ,
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Praetorian Prefect
PRAETORIAN PREFECT (Latin : praefectus praetorio, Greek : ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard , the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, with its holders becoming the Emperor's chief aides. Under Constantine I
Constantine I
, the office was much reduced in power and transformed into a purely civilian administrative post, while under his successors, territorially-defined praetorian prefectures emerged as the highest-level administrative division of the Empire. The prefects again functioned as the chief ministers of the state, with many laws addressed to them by name
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Emperor Valentinian I
VALENTINIAN I (Latin : Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; 3 July 321 – 17 November 375), also known as VALENTINIAN THE GREAT, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the Alamanni , Quadi , and Sarmatians . Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium . His brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy , a coordinated assault on Roman Britain
Roman Britain
by Picts , Scots , and Saxons . Valentinian was also the last emperor to conduct campaigns across both the Rhine
Rhine
and Danube
Danube
rivers
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Praefectus Praetorio
PRAETORIAN PREFECT (Latin : praefectus praetorio, Greek : ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire . Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard , the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, with its holders becoming the Emperor's chief aides. Under Constantine I , the office was much reduced in power and transformed into a purely civilian administrative post, while under his successors, territorially-defined praetorian prefectures emerged as the highest-level administrative division of the Empire. The prefects again functioned as the chief ministers of the state, with many laws addressed to them by name. In this role, praetorian prefects continued to be appointed until the reign of Heraclius in the 7th century AD, when wide-ranging reforms reduced its power and converted it to a mere overseer of provincial administration
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Praefectus Urbi
The _PRAEFECTUS URBANUS_, also called _PRAEFECTUS URBI_ or URBAN PREFECT in English, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople
Constantinople
. The office originated under the Roman kings , continued during the Republic and Empire, and held high importance in late Antiquity . The office survived the collapse of the Western Roman Empire , and the last urban prefect of Rome, named Iohannes, is attested in 599. In the East, in Constantinople, the office survived until the 13th century. CONTENTS * 1 Kingly period * 2 Republican period * 3 Imperial period * 3.1 Rome
Rome
* 3.2 Constantinople
Constantinople
* 4 References * 5 Bibliography KINGLY PERIODIn 753 BC when Romulus founded the city of Rome
Rome
and instituted the monarchy , he also created the office of _CUSTOS URBIS_ (guardian of the city) to serve as the king’s chief lieutenant
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Magister Militum
_MAGISTER MILITUM_ ( Latin
Latin
for "Master of the Soldiers", plural _magistri militum_) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, dating from the reign of Constantine . Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as _strategos _ or as _stratelates _
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Praepositus Sacri Cubiculi
The PRAEPOSITUS SACRI CUBICULI ("provost of the sacred bedchamber", in Greek : πραιπόσιτος τοῦ εὐσεβεστάτου κοιτῶνος) was one of the senior palace offices in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Its holder was usually a eunuch , and acted as the grand chamberlain of the palace, wielding considerable authority and influence. In the 7th or 8th century, the title was also given to an order of rank for eunuch palace servants. The title and office continued in use in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
until the late 11th century. CONTENTS * 1 History and evolution * 2 Notable praepositi * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORY AND EVOLUTIONThe first securely identifiable holder of the office was Eusebius under Emperor Constantius II
Constantius II
(r. 337–361), but the position may have been introduced already under Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Magister Officiorum
The MAGISTER OFFICIORUM (Latin literally for "Master of Offices", in Greek : μάγιστρος τῶν ὀφφικίων, magistros tōn offikiōn) was one of the most senior administrative officials in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. In Byzantium, the office was eventually transformed into a senior honorary rank, until it disappeared in the 12th century. CONTENTS* 1 History and functions * 1.1 Late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 1.2 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 2 References * 3 Sources HISTORY AND FUNCTIONSLATE ROMAN EMPIREAlthough some scholars have supported its creation under Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305), the office can first be definitely traced to the rule of Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Constantine I
Constantine I
(r
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Quaestor
A QUAESTOR (UK : /ˈkwiːstər/ , US : /ˈkwɛstər/ , Latin for investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome . The position served different functions depending on the period. In the Roman Kingdom , _quaestores parricidii_ (quaestors with judicial powers) were appointed by the king to investigate and handle murders. In the Roman Republic , quaestors (also pluralized _quaestores_) were elected officials that supervised the state treasury and conducted audits. It was the lowest ranking position in the _cursus honorum _ (course of offices). However, this means that in the political environment of Rome, it was quite common for many aspiring politicians to take the position of quaestor as an early rung on the political ladder
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Comes Sacrarum Largitionum
The COMES SACRARUM LARGITIONUM ("Count of the Sacred Largesses"; in Greek : κόμης τῶν θείων θησαυρῶν, kómes tōn theíon thesaurōn) was one of the senior fiscal officials of the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the early Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Although it is first attested in 342/345, its creation must date to ca. 318, under Emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337). He was the successor of the Principate -era rationalis , and supervised those financial sectors that were left outside the purview of the praetorian prefects : the taxation of senators , the chrysargyron tax, customs duties, mines, mints and state-run mills and textile factories. Initially, the comes also controlled the emperor's private domains, but these passed under the control of the comes rerum privatarum by the end of the 4th century. He also exercised some judicial functions related to taxation
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Comes Rerum Privatarum
In the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, the COMES RERUM PRIVATARUM (κόμης τη̑ς ἰδικη̑ς παρουσίας, kómis tȋs idikȋs parousías), literally "count of the private fortune", was the official charged with administering the estates of the emperor . He did not administer public lands, although the distinction between the emperor's private property and state property was not always clear or consistently applied. The comes collected rents, handled sales of movable and immovable property, protected the estates from usurpation and accepted lands that came to the emperor by way of grant, bequest, confiscation or forfeiture. Vacant lands (bona vacantia) and heirless property (bona caduca) both escheated to the emperor. The office was probably created around 318, at the same time as that of the comes sacrarum largitionum , although it is not explicitly mentioned until the period 342–45. The comes was one of the comites consistoriales
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Consul
CONSUL (abbrev. _cos._; Latin plural _consules_) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic , and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire . The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states , notably in the First French Republic . The relating adjective is CONSULAR, from the _consularis _. CONTENTS * 1 Modern use of the term * 2 Medieval city states * 3 French Revolution * 3.1 French Republic * 3.2 Roman Republic * 3.3 Bolognese Republic * 4 Later modern republics * 4.1 Paraguay * 5 Other uses in antiquity * 5.1 Other city states * 5.2 Private sphere * 5.3 Revolutionary Greece * 6 See also * 7 Sources and references MODERN USE OF THE TERM Main article: Consul (representative) In modern terminology, a consul is a type of diplomat
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