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Vir Illustris
The title VIR ILLUSTRIS ("illustrious man") is used as a formal indication of standing in late antiquity to describe the highest ranks within the senates of Rome and Constantinople
Constantinople
. All senators had the title vir clarissimus ("very famous man"); but from the mid fourth century onwards, vir illustris and vir spectabilis ("admirable man", a lower rank than illustris) were used to distinguish holders of high office. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Offices * 1.3 Later developments * 2 Written forms * 3 References * 4 Notes HISTORYORIGINSThe custom of Roman senators of late antiquity appending the title of vir clarissimus to their names developed gradually over the first two centuries. During the fourth century, the senatorial order greatly increased in number, so that the title became more common and new titles were devised to distinguish senators of a higher dignity, namely vir spectabilis and vir illustris. The first instance of vir illustris occurred in AD 354 with its use by the Praefectus praetorio . For some decades it was used inconsistently, but then more regularly, perhaps in connection with a formal codification of honours by Emperor Valentinian I in AD 372. OFFICESThe offices that had a right to the title varied with time
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Notitia Dignitatum
The _NOTITIA DIGNITATUM_ ( Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires. It is unique as one of very few surviving documents of Roman government and describes several thousand offices from the imperial court to provincial governments, diplomatic missions , and army units . It is usually considered to be accurate for the Western Roman Empire in the AD 420s and for the Eastern or Byzantine Empire in the AD 390s. However, the text does not date its own authorship or accuracy, and omissions complicate ascertaining its date from its content. CONTENTS * 1 Copies of the manuscript * 2 Contents * 3 Interpretation * 4 Depictions * 5 See also * 6 Citations * 7 Sources and references * 8 External links * 8.1 Manuscripts * 8.2 Latin, web versions * 8.3 Editions COPIES OF THE MANUSCRIPTThere are several extant 15th- and 16th-century copies of the document, plus a color-illuminated iteration of 1542. All the known, extant copies are derived, either directly or indirectly, from _Codex Spirensis_, a codex known to have existed in the library of the Chapter of Speyer Cathedral in 1542, but which was lost before 1672 and has not been rediscovered
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Late Antiquity
LATE ANTIQUITY is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe , the Mediterranean world, and the Near East . The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown , after the publication of his seminal work _The World of Late Antiquity _ (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire 's Crisis of the Third Century (c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the early Islamic period (7th–9th centuries), following the Muslim conquests in the mid-7th century. In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Medieval period typically placed in the 6th century, or earlier on the Western edges of the empire. The Roman Empire underwent considerable social, cultural and organizational changes starting with the reign of Diocletian , who began the custom of splitting the Empire into Eastern and Western halves ruled by multiple emperors. Beginning with Constantine the Great , Christianity was made legal in the Empire, and a new capital was founded at Constantinople
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe . It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece , and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world . Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called _res publica _, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople Shown within Turkey ALTERNATE NAME Byzantion, Miklagard/Miklagarth, Tsargrad, Basileuousa (Queen of Cities), Megalopolis (the Great City) LOCATION Istanbul , Istanbul Province , Turkey REGION Thrace COORDINATES 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500 Coordinates : 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500 TYPE Imperial city AREA6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) enclosed within Constantinian Walls 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi) enclosed within Theodosian Walls HISTORY BUILDER Constantine the Great FOUNDED AD 330 PERIODS Late Antiquity to Late Middle Ages CULTURES Roman , Byzantine TIMELINE OF CONSTANTINOPLECapital of the Byzantine Empire 330-1204 AD; 1261-1453 AD * 330 AD: Founding of Constantinople * ca
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Praetorian Prefect
PRAETORIAN PREFECT (Latin : praefectus praetorio, Greek : ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard , the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, with its holders becoming the Emperor's chief aides. Under Constantine I
Constantine I
, the office was much reduced in power and transformed into a purely civilian administrative post, while under his successors, territorially-defined praetorian prefectures emerged as the highest-level administrative division of the Empire. The prefects again functioned as the chief ministers of the state, with many laws addressed to them by name. In this role, praetorian prefects continued to be appointed until the reign of Heraclius in the 7th century AD, when wide-ranging reforms reduced its power and converted it to a mere overseer of provincial administration. The last traces of the prefecture disappeared in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by the 840s. The term praefectus praetorio was often abbreviated in inscriptions as 'PR PR' or 'PPO'
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Emperor Valentinian I
VALENTINIAN I (Latin : Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; 3 July 321 – 17 November 375), also known as VALENTINIAN THE GREAT, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the Alamanni , Quadi , and Sarmatians . Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium . His brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy , a coordinated assault on Roman Britain
Roman Britain
by Picts , Scots , and Saxons . Valentinian was also the last emperor to conduct campaigns across both the Rhine
Rhine
and Danube
Danube
rivers. Valentinian rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers, even building fortresses in enemy territory. Due to the successful nature of his reign and the rapid decline of the empire after his death, he is often considered to be the "last great western emperor". He founded the Valentinian Dynasty , with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II
Valentinian II
succeeding him in the western half of the empire
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Praefectus Praetorio
PRAETORIAN PREFECT (Latin : praefectus praetorio, Greek : ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire . Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard , the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, with its holders becoming the Emperor's chief aides. Under Constantine I , the office was much reduced in power and transformed into a purely civilian administrative post, while under his successors, territorially-defined praetorian prefectures emerged as the highest-level administrative division of the Empire. The prefects again functioned as the chief ministers of the state, with many laws addressed to them by name. In this role, praetorian prefects continued to be appointed until the reign of Heraclius in the 7th century AD, when wide-ranging reforms reduced its power and converted it to a mere overseer of provincial administration. The last traces of the prefecture disappeared in the Byzantine Empire by the 840s. The term praefectus praetorio was often abbreviated in inscriptions as 'PR PR' or 'PPO'
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Praefectus Urbi
The _PRAEFECTUS URBANUS_, also called _PRAEFECTUS URBI_ or URBAN PREFECT in English, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople
Constantinople
. The office originated under the Roman kings , continued during the Republic and Empire, and held high importance in late Antiquity . The office survived the collapse of the Western Roman Empire , and the last urban prefect of Rome, named Iohannes, is attested in 599. In the East, in Constantinople, the office survived until the 13th century. CONTENTS * 1 Kingly period * 2 Republican period * 3 Imperial period * 3.1 Rome
Rome
* 3.2 Constantinople
Constantinople
* 4 References * 5 Bibliography KINGLY PERIODIn 753 BC when Romulus founded the city of Rome
Rome
and instituted the monarchy , he also created the office of _CUSTOS URBIS_ (guardian of the city) to serve as the king’s chief lieutenant. Appointed by the king to serve for life, the _custos urbis_ served concurrently as the _ Princeps Senatus _. As the second highest office of state, the _custos urbis_ was the king’s personal representative. In the absence of the king from the city, the _custos urbis_ exercised all of his powers, which included the powers of convoking the Senate , the popular assemblies and the exercise of force in the event of an emergency. However, the imperium he possessed was only valid within the walls of Rome
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Magister Militum
_MAGISTER MILITUM_ ( Latin
Latin
for "Master of the Soldiers", plural _magistri militum_) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, dating from the reign of Constantine . Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as _strategos _ or as _stratelates _. CONTENTS * 1 Establishment and development of the office * 2 List of _magistri militum_ * 2.1 Unspecified commands * 2.2 _Comes et Magister Utriusque Militiae_ * 2.3 _per Gallias_ * 2.4 _per Hispanias_ * 2.5 _per Illyricum_ * 2.6 _per Orientem_ * 2.7 _per Thracias_ * 2.8 _Praesentalis_ * 2.9 _per Africam_ * 2.9.1 Western Empire * 2.9.2 Eastern Empire * 2.10 _Magister Militae_ in Byzantine and medieval Italy * 2.10.1 Venice * 3 Later, less formal use of the term * 4 References * 5 Sources ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OFFICE For more details on this topic, see Late Roman army . The title of _magister militum_ was created in the 4th century, when Emperor Constantine the Great deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions
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Praepositus Sacri Cubiculi
The PRAEPOSITUS SACRI CUBICULI ("provost of the sacred bedchamber", in Greek : πραιπόσιτος τοῦ εὐσεβεστάτου κοιτῶνος) was one of the senior palace offices in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Its holder was usually a eunuch , and acted as the grand chamberlain of the palace, wielding considerable authority and influence. In the 7th or 8th century, the title was also given to an order of rank for eunuch palace servants. The title and office continued in use in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
until the late 11th century. CONTENTS * 1 History and evolution * 2 Notable praepositi * 3 References * 4 Sources HISTORY AND EVOLUTIONThe first securely identifiable holder of the office was Eusebius under Emperor Constantius II
Constantius II
(r. 337–361), but the position may have been introduced already under Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
(r. 306–337), in replacement of the older a cubiculo. He controlled the corps of the cubicularii (Greek : κουβικουλάριοι, koubikoularioi), also eunuchs, and was responsible for the imperial bedchamber, wardrobe and receptions. Originally under the control of the castrensis sacri palatii, he soon became directly subordinated to the Byzantine emperor
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Magister Officiorum
The MAGISTER OFFICIORUM (Latin literally for "Master of Offices", in Greek : μάγιστρος τῶν ὀφφικίων, magistros tōn offikiōn) was one of the most senior administrative officials in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. In Byzantium, the office was eventually transformed into a senior honorary rank, until it disappeared in the 12th century. CONTENTS* 1 History and functions * 1.1 Late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 1.2 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 2 References * 3 Sources HISTORY AND FUNCTIONSLATE ROMAN EMPIREAlthough some scholars have supported its creation under Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305), the office can first be definitely traced to the rule of Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Constantine I
Constantine I
(r. 306–337), in 320. Constantine probably created it in an effort to limit the power of the praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio), until then the Roman emperor's chief administrative aide. The magister supervised the palatine secretariat, divided into four bureaux, the sacra scrinia, each under a respective magister: the scrinium memoriae, the scrinium epistularum, the scrinium libellorum and the scrinium epistolarum Graecarum
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Quaestor
A QUAESTOR (UK : /ˈkwiːstər/ , US : /ˈkwɛstər/ , Latin for investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome . The position served different functions depending on the period. In the Roman Kingdom , _quaestores parricidii_ (quaestors with judicial powers) were appointed by the king to investigate and handle murders. In the Roman Republic , quaestors (also pluralized _quaestores_) were elected officials that supervised the state treasury and conducted audits. It was the lowest ranking position in the _cursus honorum _ (course of offices). However, this means that in the political environment of Rome, it was quite common for many aspiring politicians to take the position of quaestor as an early rung on the political ladder. In the Roman Empire , the position, which was initially replaced by the _praefectus _ (prefect), reemerged during the late empire as _quaestor intra Palatium_, a position appointed by the emperor to lead the imperial council and respond to petitioners. In modern usage in Italy and Romania, a quaestor is a senior ranking officer on the police force. In some organizations, a quaestor is the officer that oversees its finances, similar to a treasurer in other organizations
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Comes Sacrarum Largitionum
The COMES SACRARUM LARGITIONUM ("Count of the Sacred Largesses"; in Greek : κόμης τῶν θείων θησαυρῶν, kómes tōn theíon thesaurōn) was one of the senior fiscal officials of the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the early Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Although it is first attested in 342/345, its creation must date to ca. 318, under Emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337). He was the successor of the Principate -era rationalis , and supervised those financial sectors that were left outside the purview of the praetorian prefects : the taxation of senators , the chrysargyron tax, customs duties, mines, mints and state-run mills and textile factories. Initially, the comes also controlled the emperor's private domains, but these passed under the control of the comes rerum privatarum by the end of the 4th century. He also exercised some judicial functions related to taxation. The comes gradually declined in importance after the late 5th century, especially after Emperor Anastasius I (r. 491–518) abolished the hated chrysargyron. He remained however one of the main fiscal ministers, controlling an array of bureaus (scrinia) and with an extensive staff detached to the provinces. The last comes is mentioned under the Emperor Phocas
Phocas
(r. 602–610)
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Comes Rerum Privatarum
In the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, the COMES RERUM PRIVATARUM (κόμης τη̑ς ἰδικη̑ς παρουσίας, kómis tȋs idikȋs parousías), literally "count of the private fortune", was the official charged with administering the estates of the emperor . He did not administer public lands, although the distinction between the emperor's private property and state property was not always clear or consistently applied. The comes collected rents, handled sales of movable and immovable property, protected the estates from usurpation and accepted lands that came to the emperor by way of grant, bequest, confiscation or forfeiture. Vacant lands (bona vacantia) and heirless property (bona caduca) both escheated to the emperor. The office was probably created around 318, at the same time as that of the comes sacrarum largitionum , although it is not explicitly mentioned until the period 342–45. The comes was one of the comites consistoriales . He held by virtue of his office the rank of vir illustris and was automatically a member of the senate of Rome or the senate of Constantinople . The title comes (literally "companion") indicates that he was a member of the emperor's entourage (comitatus). The two offices (rerum privatarum and sacrarum largitionum) were the highest in the imperial bureaucracy in the fourth through sixth centuries. The department of the rerum privatarum was slightly smaller
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Consul
CONSUL (abbrev. _cos._; Latin plural _consules_) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic , and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire . The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states , notably in the First French Republic . The relating adjective is CONSULAR, from the _consularis _. CONTENTS * 1 Modern use of the term * 2 Medieval city states * 3 French Revolution * 3.1 French Republic * 3.2 Roman Republic * 3.3 Bolognese Republic * 4 Later modern republics * 4.1 Paraguay * 5 Other uses in antiquity * 5.1 Other city states * 5.2 Private sphere * 5.3 Revolutionary Greece * 6 See also * 7 Sources and references MODERN USE OF THE TERM Main article: Consul (representative) In modern terminology, a consul is a type of diplomat . The _American Heritage Dictionary_ defines CONSUL as "an official appointed by a government to reside in a foreign country and represent its interests there." In most governments, the consul is the head of the consular section of an embassy, and is responsible for all consular services such as immigrant and non-immigrant visas, passports, and citizen services for expatriates living or traveling in the host country
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