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Viking Invasions
VIKING EXPANSION is the process by which the Vikings
Vikings
sailed most of the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
, reaching south to North Africa
North Africa
and east to Russia , Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Middle East
Middle East
as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Expansion Of Islam
Early Muslim conquests
Early Muslim conquests
in the years following the Prophet Muhammad's death led to the creation of the caliphates , occupying a vast geographical area and conversion to Islam
Islam
was boosted by missionary activities particularly those of Imams
Imams
, who easily intermingled with local populace to propagate the religious teachings. These early caliphates , coupled with Muslim
Muslim
economics and trading and the later expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, resulted in Islam's spread outwards from Mecca
Mecca
towards both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the creation of the Muslim world
Muslim world
. Trading played an important role in the spread of Islam
Islam
in several parts of the world, notably southeast Asia
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Silk Road
The SILK ROAD or SILK ROUTE was an ancient network of trade routes that were for centuries central to cultural interaction originally through regions of Eurasia
Eurasia
connecting the East and West and stretching from the Korean peninsula and Japan to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. The Silk
Silk
Road concept refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting Asia and Europe. The overland Steppe route stretching through the Eurasian steppe is considered the ancestor to the Silk
Silk
Road(s). While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk
Silk
Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk (and horses) carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(207 BCE – 220 CE)
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Raptio
RAPTIO (in archaic or literary English rendered as RAPE) is a Latin term referring to the LARGE SCALE ABDUCTION OF WOMEN, i.e. kidnapping either for marriage or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery ). The equivalent term FRAUENRAUB, originally from German , is used in English in the field of art history . Bride kidnapping
Bride kidnapping
is distinguished from raptio in that the former is the abduction of one woman by one man (and his friends and relatives), whereas the latter is the abduction of women by groups of men, possibly in a time of war. Look up RAPE in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References TERMINOLOGYThe English word rape retains the Latin
Latin
meaning in literary language , but the meaning is obscured by the more current meaning of "sexual violation"
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Female Infanticide
FEMALE INFANTICIDE is the deliberate killing of newborn female children. In countries with a history of female infanticide, the modern practice of sex-selective abortion is often discussed as a closely related issue. Female infanticide
Female infanticide
is a major cause of concern in several nations such as China , India and Pakistan . It has been argued that the "low status" in which women are viewed in patriarchal societies creates a bias against females. In 1978, anthropologist Laila Williamson, in a summary of data she had collated on how widespread infanticide was among both tribal and developed, or "civilized" nations, found that infanticide had occurred on every continent and was carried out by groups ranging from hunter gatherers to highly developed societies and that rather than this practice being an exception, it has been commonplace
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Youth Bulge
A POPULATION PYRAMID, also called an AGE PYRAMID or AGE PICTURE is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. This tool can be used to visualize sex and age composition of a particular population. It is also used in ecology to determine the overall age distribution of a population; an indication of the reproductive capabilities and likelihood of the continuation of a species. Population
Population
pyramid often contains continuous stacked-histogram bars. The population size is depicted on the x-axis (horizontal), and age-groups on y-axis (vertical). Males are conventionally shown on the left and females on the right, and they may be measured by raw number or as a percentage of the total population
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Scandinavian Peninsula
The SCANDINAVIAN PENINSULA (Swedish : Skandinaviska halvön; Norwegian : Den skandinaviske halvøy; Finnish : Skandinavian niemimaa; Northern Sami : ?; Russian : Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in Northern Europe , which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden
Sweden
, the mainland of Norway
Norway
(with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland
Finland
, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia. The name of the peninsula is derived from the term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, the cultural region of Denmark
Denmark
, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden

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Nicholas Roerich
NICHOLAS ROERICH (/ˈrɜːrɪx/ ; October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947) – known also as NIKOLAI KONSTANTINOVICH RERIKH (Russian : Никола́й Константи́нович Ре́рих) – was a Russian painter, writer, archaeologist , theosophist , perceived by some in Russia
Russia
as an enlightener , philosopher , and public figure , who in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society around the spiritual. He was interested in hypnosis and other spiritual practices and his paintings are said to have hypnotic expression. Born in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
, to a well-to-do notary public father of Baltic German ancestry and a Russian mother, he lived in various places around the world until his death in Naggar , Himachal Pradesh, India
India

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John Charles Dollman
JOHN CHARLES DOLLMAN RWS RI ROI (1851–1934) was an English painter and illustrator. Dollman was born in Hove
Hove
on 6 May 1851 and moved to London to study at South Kensington
South Kensington
and the Royal Academy Schools
Royal Academy Schools
, after which he set up a studio at Bedford Park, London . He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1870 to 1912, and was elected RWS (Member of the Royal Watercolour Society ) in 1913. Dollman was also an illustrator, working in black and white or colour for magazines such as the Graphic during and after the 1880s. Some of his early work has been said to have influenced Van Gogh
Van Gogh
. WORKSA central theme was ambitious mythological pictures such as a Viking Foray, a Viking horde entitled the Ravager, The Unknown (1912), featuring a girl surrounded by chimps and Orpheus and his Lute with Lions
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Isle Of Skye
SKYE, or the ISLE OF SKYE (/skaɪ/ ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a' Cheò), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland
Scotland
. The island's peninsulas radiate from a mountainous centre dominated by the Cuillins , the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country. Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name's origins. The island has been occupied since the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period, and its history includes a time of Norse rule and a long period of domination by Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald
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Danelaw
The DANELAW (/ˈdeɪnˌlɔ/ , also known as the DANELAGH; Old English : Dena lagunema; Danish : Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , is a historical name given to the part of England
England
in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
. Danelaw
Danelaw
contrasts West Saxon law and Mercian law . The term is first recorded in the early eleventh century as Dena lage. Modern historians have extended the term to a geographical designation. The areas that constituted the Danelaw
Danelaw
lie in northern and eastern England. The Danelaw
Danelaw
originated from the Viking
Viking
expansion of the 9th century AD, although the term was not used to describe a geographic area until the 11th century AD
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Battle Of Tempsford
TEMPSFORD is a village and civil parish in the English county of Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
. The village is split by the A1 Great North Road and is located just before the junction with the A428 at the Black Cat Roundabout . To the east of the village is the site of the former RAF Tempsford airfield. It was served by Tempsford railway station . HISTORYIn 917 Tempsford was a fortified Danish burh where, following an unsuccessful attack on Bedford
Bedford
, the Battle of Tempsford
Battle of Tempsford
took place. The Danes were defeated by an English army led by King Edward the Elder . REFERENCES * ^ "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 12 November 2016. * ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, ed
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Isle Of Man
The ISLE OF MAN (Manx : Ellan Vannin ), also known simply as MANN (/mæn/ ; Manx : Mannin ), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor . Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Ranked by the World Bank as the 5th richest nation in the world by GDP per capita, the largest sectors are insurance and eGaming with 17% of GNP each, followed by ICT and banking with 9% each. The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language , a branch of the Gaelic languages , emerged
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DNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk/ ( listen ); DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses . DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids ; alongside proteins , lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides ), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life . Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix . The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides . Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine , guanine , adenine or thymine ), a sugar called deoxyribose , and a phosphate group
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Osteology
OSTEOLOGY is the scientific study of bones, practiced by OSTEOLOGISTS. A subdiscipline of anatomy , anthropology , and archaeology , osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, teeth , microbone morphology , function, disease , pathology , the process of ossification (from cartilaginous molds), the resistance and hardness of bones (biophysics ), etc. often used by scientists with identification of vertebrate remains with regard to age , death , sex , growth , and development and can be used in a biocultural context. Osteologists frequently work in the public and private sector as consultants for museums, scientists for research laboratories, scientists for medical investigations and/or for companies producing osteological reproductions in an academic context. Osteology and osteologists should not be confused with the holistic practice of medicine known as osteopathy and its practitioners, osteopaths
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