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Viking Invasions
VIKING EXPANSION is the process by which the Vikings
Vikings
sailed most of the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
, reaching south to North Africa
North Africa
and east to Russia , Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Middle East
Middle East
as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries. Vikings
Vikings
under Leif Ericsson , the heir to Erik the Red , reached North America and set up a short-lived settlement in present-day L\'Anse aux Meadows , Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
, Canada
Canada
. Longer and more established settlements were formed in Greenland
Greenland
, Iceland
Iceland
, Great Britain
Great Britain
and Normandy
Normandy

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Nicholas Roerich
NICHOLAS ROERICH (/ˈrɜːrɪx/ ; October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947) – known also as NIKOLAI KONSTANTINOVICH RERIKH (Russian : Никола́й Константи́нович Ре́рих) – was a Russian painter, writer, archaeologist , theosophist , perceived by some in Russia as an enlightener , philosopher , and public figure , who in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society around the spiritual. He was interested in hypnosis and other spiritual practices and his paintings are said to have hypnotic expression. Born in Saint Petersburg , Russia , to a well-to-do notary public father of Baltic German ancestry and a Russian mother, he lived in various places around the world until his death in Naggar , Himachal Pradesh, India . Trained as an artist and a lawyer, his main interests were literature, philosophy, archaeology , and especially art. Roerich was a dedicated activist for the cause of preserving art and architecture during times of war. He earned several nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize long list. The so-called Roerich Pact was signed into law by the United States and most nations of the Pan-American Union in April 1935
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Vikings
VIKINGS ( Old English : _wicing_—"pirate", Danish and Bokmål : _vikinger_; Swedish and Nynorsk : _vikingar_; Icelandic : _víkingar_, from Old Norse _víkingar_), were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language , who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central and eastern Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries. The term is also commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Viking home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age . This period of Nordic military, mercantile and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia , Estonia , the British Isles , France , Kievan Rus\' and Sicily . Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, and characterised by the longship , Viking activities at times also extended into the Mediterranean littoral , North Africa , the Middle East and Central Asia . Following extended phases of (primarily sea- or river-borne) exploration, expansion and settlement, Viking (Norse) communities and polities were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, European Russia , the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America
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North Atlantic
The ATLANTIC OCEAN is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles). It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth\'s surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World " from the " New World ". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean , it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean , to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica ). The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N . Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition , the German Meteor expedition , Columbia University 's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office
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North Africa
NORTH AFRICA is a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent . It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco in the west, to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs as the Maghreb (“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , as well as Libya , Egypt , and Sudan . The term “North Africa”, when commonly used in North Africa and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb and Libya. Egypt, due to its greater Middle Eastern associations, is typically viewed separately. The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity that is unique to this region. North west Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Egyptians
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Russia
Coordinates : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90 Russian Federation Российская Федерация (Russian ) _Rossiyskaya Federatsiya_ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " "_Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii _" (transliteration ) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Location of Russia (green) Russian-administered Crimea (disputed ; light green)a Capital and largest city Moscow 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Russian RECOGNISED NATIONAL LANGUAGES See Languages of Russia ETHNIC GROUPS (2010 ) * 81.0% Russian * 3.7% Tatar * 1.4% Ukrainian * 1.1% Bashkir * 1.0% Chuvash * 0.8% Chechen * 11.0% others / unspecified RELIGION See _Religion in Russia_ DEMONYM Russian GOVERNMENT Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις or Κωνσταντινούπολη (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin) Map of Constantinople Shown within Turkey ALTERNATE NAME Byzantion, Miklagard/Miklagarth, Tsargrad, Basileuousa (Queen of Cities), Megalopolis (the Great City) LOCATION Istanbul , Istanbul Province , Turkey REGION Thrace COORDINATES 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500 Coordinates : 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500 TYPE Imperial city AREA6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) enclosed within Constantinian Walls 14 km2 (5.4 sq mi) enclosed within Theodosian Walls HISTORY BUILDER Constantine the Great FOUNDED AD 330 PERIODS Late Antiquity to Late Middle Ages CULTURES Roman , Byzantine TIMELINE OF CONSTANTINOPLECapital of the Byzantine Empire 330-1204 AD; 1261-1453 AD * 330 AD: Founding of Constantinople * ca
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Middle East
The MIDDLE EAST is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia
Asia
and Egypt
Egypt
in North Africa
North Africa
. The corresponding adjective is _Middle-Eastern_ and the derived noun is _Middle-Easterner_. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East
Far East
) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs
Arabs
, Turks , Persians , Kurds , and Azeris (excluding Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews
Jews
, Assyrians and other Arameans , Baloch , Berbers , Coptic Christians
Christians
, Druze
Druze
, Lurs , Mandaeans , Samaritans
Samaritans
, Shabaks , Tats , and Zazas . In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians , Bosniaks , Circassians , Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
, Franco-Levantines , and Italo-Levantines
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Leif Ericsson
LEIF ERIKSON or LEIF ERICSON ( Old Norse : Leifr Eiríksson; Icelandic : Leifur Eiríksson; Norwegian : Leiv Eiriksson c. 970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer from Iceland
Iceland
. He was the first known European to have discovered continental North America
North America
(excluding Greenland
Greenland
), before Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
(or possibly Saint Brendan ). According to the Sagas of Icelanders
Icelanders
, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland
Vinland
, tentatively identified with the Norse L\'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada
Canada
. Later archaeological evidence suggests that Vinland
Vinland
may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence
Gulf of St. Lawrence
and that the L\'Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station. Leif was the son of Erik the Red , the founder of the first Norse settlement in Greenland
Greenland
and of Thjodhild (Þjóðhildur), both of Norwegian origin. His place of birth is not certainly known, but he is assumed to have been born in Iceland, which had recently been colonized by Norsemen mainly from Norway
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Erik The Red
ERIK THORVALDSSON (Old Norse : Eiríkr Þorvaldsson; 950 – c. 1003), known as ERIK THE RED (Old Norse : Eiríkr hinn rauði) was a Norwegian Viking
Viking
, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first Norse settlement in Greenland
Greenland
. The Icelandic tradition indicates that he was born in the Jæren district of Rogaland
Rogaland
, Norway
Norway
, as the son of Þorvald Ásvaldsson , he therefore also appears, patronymically , as Erik Thorvaldsson (Eiríkr Þorvaldsson). The appellation "the Red" most likely refers to his hair color and the color of his beard. Leif Erikson , the famous Icelandic explorer, was Erik's son. CONTENTS * 1 Exiles * 2 Discoveries * 3 Eystribyggð * 4 Relations * 5 Comparisons to Grœnlendinga Saga
Saga
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EXILESErik the Red's father (Thorvald Asvaldsson) was banished from Norway for the crime of manslaughter when Erik was about 10 years old. He sailed West from Norway
Norway
with his family and settled in Hornstrandir in northwestern Iceland
Iceland
. The Icelanders later sentenced Erik to exile for three years for killing Eyiolf the Foul around the year 982
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L'Anse Aux Meadows
L\'ANSE AUX MEADOWS (/ˈlænsi ˈmɛdoʊz/ ; from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or " Jellyfish Cove") is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador . Discovered in 1960, it is the most famous site of a Norse or Viking settlement in North America . Dating to around the year 1000, L'Anse aux Meadows is widely accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact . It is notable for its possible connection with the attempted colony of Vinland established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly, with Norse exploration of the Americas . It was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Discovery and significance * 3 Norse site * 4 Pre-European settlements * 5 Connection with Vinland sagas * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe site now known as L'Anse aux Meadows was first recorded as Anse à la Médée ("the Médée's Cove") on a French nautical chart made in 1862. The toponym probably referred to a ship named after the Greek mythological figure of Medea , which would have been a typical name for seagoing vessels at the time
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Newfoundland And Labrador
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR (/njuːfənˈlænd ən ˈlæbrədɔːr/ , French : _Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador_; Innu
Innu
: _Akamassiss_; Newfoundland Irish : _Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar_) is the most easterly province of Canada
Canada
. Situated in the country's Atlantic region , it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador
Labrador
to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres (156,500 sq mi). In 2013, the province's population was estimated at 526,702. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland (and its neighbouring smaller islands), of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula
. The province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.6% of residents reporting English (Newfoundland English ) as their mother tongue in the 2006 census. Historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish , as well as the extinct Beothuk language
Beothuk language
. In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun
Innu-aimun
and Inuktitut
Inuktitut
are also spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John\'s , is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the province's population. St
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY Toronto OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * English * French ETHNIC GROUPS Ethnic demography * 76.7% White * 14.2% Asian * 4.3% Indigenous * 2.9% Black * 1.2% Latin American * 0.5% Multiracial * 0.3% Other RELIGION List of religion
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Greenland
GREENLAND (/ˈɡriːnlənd/ ; Greenlandic : _ Kalaallit Nunaat_ ; Danish : _Grønland_ ) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago . Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America , Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers , as well as the nearby island of Iceland ) for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit , whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island. Greenland is the world\'s largest island ( Australia , although larger, is generally considered to be a continental landmass rather than an island). Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica . With a population of about 56,480 (2013), it is the least densely populated country in the world. The Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada
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Iceland
ICELAND (/ˈaɪslənd/ (_ listen ); Icelandic : Ísland_ pronounced ) is a Nordic island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean and usually considered part of Europe . It has a population of 332,529 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík . Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active . The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields , mountains and glaciers , while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle . Its high latitude and marine influence still keeps summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate . According to the ancient manuscript _ Landnámabók _, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, Norwegians , and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians , emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls of Gaelic origin
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Great Britain
GREAT BRITAIN, also known as BRITAIN, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe . With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles , the largest European island , and the ninth-largest island in the world . In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan . The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands , comprise the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of