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Vielle
Bowed * Byzantine lira * Guitar fiddle * Fiddle * Crwth * Rebec * Viol
Viol
Plucked * Citole
Citole
The VIELLE /viˈɛl/ is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, and a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body. Player of a three-string vielle. In margin of Peterborough Psalter . Early 14th Century. The instrument was also known as a fidel or a viuola, although the French name for the instrument, vielle, is generally used
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Musical Instrument
A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds . In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute , dates back as far as 67,000 years
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Bowed String Instrument
BOWED STRING INSTRUMENTS are a subcategory of string instruments that are played by a bow rubbing the strings . The bow rubbing the string causes vibration which the instrument emits as sound
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Byzantine Lira
The BYZANTINE LYRA or LIRA (Greek : λύρα) was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine
Byzantine
(Eastern Roman) Empire . In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings , held upright and played by stopping the strings from the side with fingernails. Remains of two actual examples of Byzantine lyras from the Middle ages have been found in excavations at Novgorod ; one dated to 1190 AD. The first known depiction of the instrument is on a Byzantine
Byzantine
ivory casket (900–1100 AD), preserved in the Bargello
Bargello
in Florence
Florence
(Museo Nazionale, Florence, Coll. Carrand, No.26)
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Guitar Fiddle
Bowed * Byzantine lira * Fiddle * Crwth * Rebec * Vielle
Vielle
* Viol
Viol
Plucked * Citole
Citole
The GUITAR FIDDLE or TROUBADOUR FIDDLE is a modern name bestowed retrospectively upon certain precursors of the violin possessing characteristics of both guitar and fiddle . The name guitar fiddle is intended to emphasize the fact that the instrument in the shape of the guitar, which during the Middle Ages represented the most perfect principle of construction for stringed instruments with necks, adopted at a certain period the use of the bow from instruments of a less perfect type, the rebab and its hybrids
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Fiddle
FIDDLE is another name for the bowed string musical instrument more often called a violin . It is also a colloquial term for the instrument used by players in all genres, including classical music . FIDDLE PLAYING, or FIDDLING, refers to various styles of music. Fiddle is also a common term among musicians who play folk music on the violin. The fiddle is part of many traditional (folk ) styles of music which are aural traditions, taught 'by ear ' rather than via written music. There are few real distinctions between violins and fiddles, though more primitively constructed and smaller violins are more likely to be considered fiddles. Due to the style of the music played, fiddles may optionally be set up with a bridge with a flatter arch to allow multiple strings to be played simultaneously with more ease, such as the droning in bluegrass music or performing triple stops
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Crwth
The CRWTH (/ˈkruːθ/ or /ˈkrʊθ/ ), also called a CROWD or ROTE, is a bowed lyre , a type of stringed instrument , associated particularly with Welsh music and with mediaeval folk music of England , now archaic but once widely played in Europe. Four historical examples have survived and are to be found in St Fagans National Museum of History ( Cardiff
Cardiff
), National Library of Wales
National Library of Wales
(Aberystwyth ), Warrington Museum "> Watercolour of a Crwth
Crwth
from Pennant\'s A tour in Wales, 1781 The name crwth is originally a Welsh word, derived from a Proto-Celtic noun *krotto- ("round object" ) which refers to a swelling or bulging out, a pregnant appearance or a protuberance, and it is speculated that it came to be used for the instrument because of its bulging shape. Other Celtic words for violin also have meanings referring to rounded appearances
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Rebec
The REBEC (sometimes REBECHA, REBECKHA, and other spellings, pronounced /ˈriːbɛk/ or /ˈrɛbɛk/ ) is a bowed stringed instrument of the Medieval era and the early Renaissance era . In its most common form, it has a narrow boat-shaped body and 1-5 strings. Played on the arm or under the chin, the technique and tuning may have influenced the development of the violin and the extended technique of bowed banjo . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Tuning * 3 In use * 4 Artists * 5 The rebec in popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ORIGINS Musicians with citole (left) and rebec or vielle , from the English Queen Mary Psalter , c. 1320. Popular from the 13th to 16th centuries, the introduction of the rebec into Western Europe coincided with the Arabic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula . There is however evidence of the existence of bowed instruments in the 9th century in Eastern Europe
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Viol
The VIOL /ˈvaɪəl/ , VIOLA DA GAMBA , or (informally) GAMBA, is any one of a family of bowed , fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets on the viol are usually made of gut, tied on the fingerboard around the instrument's neck, to enable the performer to stop the strings more cleanly. Frets improve consistency of intonation and lend the stopped notes a tone which better matches the open strings. Viols first appeared in Spain
Spain
in the mid to late 15th century and was most popular in the Renaissance and Baroque
Baroque
(1600-1750) periods
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Citole
String instrument Plucked string instrument HORNBOSTEL–SACHS CLASSIFICATION 321.322-6 (box-necked lute) ( Chordophone with permanently attached resonator and neck, sounded by a plectrum ) DEVELOPED 13th-14th Centuries from the cithara (lyre) , plucked fiddles and/or lutes RELATED INSTRUMENTS BOWED * Crwth *
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Stringed Instrument
STRING INSTRUMENTS, STRINGED INSTRUMENTS, or CHORDOPHONES are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some string instruments by plucking the strings with their fingers or a plectrum —and others by hitting the strings with a light wooden hammer or by rubbing the strings with a bow . In some keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord or piano , the musician presses a key that plucks the string or strikes it with a hammer. With bowed instruments, the player rubs the strings with a horsehair bow, causing them to vibrate. With a hurdy-gurdy , the musician operates a mechanical wheel that rubs the strings
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Medieval Music
MEDIEVAL MUSIC consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D. to 1400. Medieval music was an era of Western music , including liturgical music (also known as sacred) used for the church, and secular music , non-religious music. Medieval music includes solely vocal music, such as Gregorian chant and choral music (music for a group of singers), solely instrumental music , and music that uses both voices and instruments (typically with the instruments accompanying the voices). Gregorian chant was sung by monks during Catholic Mass . The Mass is a reenactment of Christ's Last Supper , intended to provide a spiritual connection between man and God. Part of this connection was established through music. This era begins with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century and ends sometime in the early fifteenth century
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Violin
The VIOLIN is a wooden string instrument in the violin family . It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments are known, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin , but these are virtually unused in the 2010s. The violin typically has four strings tuned in perfect fifths , and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato ). Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres. They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition and in many varieties of folk music . They are also frequently used in genres of folk including country music and bluegrass music and in jazz
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Peterborough Psalter
The PETERBOROUGH PSALTER is a name given to two different illuminated manuscripts of the Psalms produced in the scriptorium of Peterborough Abbey . One, from the early 13th century, is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum , Cambridge; the other, from the early 14th century, in the Royal Library of Belgium . CAMBRIDGEThe Peterborough Psalter
Peterborough Psalter
in Cambridge was perhaps produced for Robert of Lindsey , abbot of Peterborough 1214–1222. BRUSSELSThe Peterborough Psalter
Peterborough Psalter
in Brussels was produced for Abbot Godfrey of Croyland (died 1321). REFERENCES * ^ http://www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/collections/illuminatedmanuscripts/MS_12 * ^ http://belgica.kbr.be/nl/coll/ms/ms9961_62_nl.html This article about an illuminated manuscript is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Troubadours
A TROUBADOUR (English: /ˈtruːbədʊər/ , French: ; Occitan
Occitan
: trobador, IPA: ) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
(1100–1350). Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz . The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania , but it subsequently spread into Italy
Italy
and Spain
Spain
. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang
Minnesang
in Germany
Germany
, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal
Portugal
, and that of the trouvères in northern France
France

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Jongleur
A MINSTREL was a medieval European entertainer . Originally describing any type of entertainer such as a musician , juggler , acrobat , singer or fool , the term later, from the sixteenth century, came to mean a specialist entertainer who sang songs and played musical instruments. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 In literature * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONMinstrels performed songs whose lyrics told stories of distant places or of existing or imaginary historical events. Although minstrels created their own tales, often they would memorize and embellish the works of others. Frequently they were retained by royalty and high society. As the courts became more sophisticated, minstrels were eventually replaced at court by the troubadours , and many became wandering minstrels, performing in the streets; a decline in their popularity began in the late 15th century
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