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Vielle
Bowed * Byzantine lira * Guitar fiddle * Fiddle * Crwth * Rebec * Viol
Viol
Plucked * Citole
Citole
The VIELLE /viˈɛl/ is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, and a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body. Player of a three-string vielle. In margin of Peterborough Psalter . Early 14th Century. The instrument was also known as a fidel or a viuola, although the French name for the instrument, vielle, is generally used. It was one of the most popular instruments of the Medieval period, and was used by troubadours and jongleurs from the 13th through the 15th centuries. The vielle possibly derived from the lira , a Byzantine bowed instrument closely related to the rebab , an Arab bowed instrument. We can also find many illustrations from different types of vielles in medieval manuscripts, sculptures and paintings (from 12th century). Starting in the middle or end of the 15th century, the word vielle was used to refer to the hurdy-gurdy , as a shortened form of its name: vielle à roue ("vielle with a wheel")
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Musical Instrument
A MUSICAL INSTRUMENT is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds . In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute , dates back as far as 67,000 years. Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials used to make them. Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone, wood, and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin
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Bowed String Instrument
BOWED STRING INSTRUMENTS are a subcategory of string instruments that are played by a bow rubbing the strings . The bow rubbing the string causes vibration which the instrument emits as sound
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Byzantine Lira
The BYZANTINE LYRA or LIRA (Greek : λύρα) was a medieval bowed string musical instrument in the Byzantine
Byzantine
(Eastern Roman) Empire . In its popular form the lyra was a pear-shaped instrument with three to five strings , held upright and played by stopping the strings from the side with fingernails. Remains of two actual examples of Byzantine lyras from the Middle ages have been found in excavations at Novgorod ; one dated to 1190 AD. The first known depiction of the instrument is on a Byzantine
Byzantine
ivory casket (900–1100 AD), preserved in the Bargello
Bargello
in Florence
Florence
(Museo Nazionale, Florence, Coll. Carrand, No.26). Versions of the Byzantine
Byzantine
lyra are still played throughout the former lands of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire: Greece
Greece
( Politiki lyra
Politiki lyra
, lit. "lyra of the City" i.e
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Guitar Fiddle
Bowed * Byzantine lira * Fiddle * Crwth * Rebec * Vielle
Vielle
* Viol
Viol
Plucked * Citole
Citole
The GUITAR FIDDLE or TROUBADOUR FIDDLE is a modern name bestowed retrospectively upon certain precursors of the violin possessing characteristics of both guitar and fiddle . The name guitar fiddle is intended to emphasize the fact that the instrument in the shape of the guitar, which during the Middle Ages represented the most perfect principle of construction for stringed instruments with necks, adopted at a certain period the use of the bow from instruments of a less perfect type, the rebab and its hybrids. The use of the bow with the guitar entailed certain constructive changes in the instrument: the large central rose sound hole was replaced by lateral holes of various shapes; the flat bridge , suitable for instruments whose strings were plucked, gave place to the arched bridge required in order to enable the bow to vibrate each string separately; the arched bridge, by raising the strings higher above the sounding board , made the stopping of strings on the neck extremely difficult if not impossible; this matter was adjusted by the addition of a fingerboard of suitable shape and dimensions (fig
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Fiddle
FIDDLE is another name for the bowed string musical instrument more often called a violin . It is also a colloquial term for the instrument used by players in all genres, including classical music . FIDDLE PLAYING, or FIDDLING, refers to various styles of music. Fiddle is also a common term among musicians who play folk music on the violin. The fiddle is part of many traditional (folk ) styles of music which are aural traditions, taught 'by ear ' rather than via written music. There are few real distinctions between violins and fiddles, though more primitively constructed and smaller violins are more likely to be considered fiddles. Due to the style of the music played, fiddles may optionally be set up with a bridge with a flatter arch to allow multiple strings to be played simultaneously with more ease, such as the droning in bluegrass music or performing triple stops . In order to produce a "brighter" tone, compared to the deeper tones of gut or synthetic core strings, fiddlers often prefer to use steel strings on their instruments. Among musical styles, fiddling tends to produce rhythms focused on dancing, with associated quick note changes, whereas classical music tends to contain more vibrato and sustained notes. It is less common for a classically trained violinist to play folk music, but today, many fiddlers have classical training
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Crwth
The CRWTH (/ˈkruːθ/ or /ˈkrʊθ/ ), also called a CROWD or ROTE, is a bowed lyre , a type of stringed instrument , associated particularly with Welsh music and with mediaeval folk music of England , now archaic but once widely played in Europe. Four historical examples have survived and are to be found in St Fagans National Museum of History ( Cardiff ), National Library of Wales (Aberystwyth ), Warrington Museum ">_ Watercolour of a Crwth from Pennant\'s A tour in Wales_, 1781 The name _crwth_ is originally a Welsh word, derived from a Proto-Celtic noun _*krotto-_ ("round object" ) which refers to a swelling or bulging out, a pregnant appearance or a protuberance, and it is speculated that it came to be used for the instrument because of its bulging shape. Other Celtic words for violin also have meanings referring to rounded appearances. In Gaelic, for example, "cruit" can mean "hump" or "hunch" as well as harp or violin . Like several other English loanwords from Welsh, the name is one of the few words in the English language in which the letter W is used as a vowel . The traditional English name is CROWD (or ROTE), and the variants _crwd_, _crout_ and _crouth_ are little-used today. In Medieval Latin it is called the _chorus_ or _crotta_. The Welsh word _crythor_ means a performer on the crwth. The Irish word is _cruit_, although it also was used on occasion to designate certain small harps
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Rebec
The REBEC (sometimes REBECHA, REBECKHA, and other spellings, pronounced /ˈriːbɛk/ or /ˈrɛbɛk/ ) is a bowed stringed instrument of the Medieval era and the early Renaissance era . In its most common form, it has a narrow boat-shaped body and 1-5 strings. Played on the arm or under the chin, the technique and tuning may have influenced the development of the violin and the extended technique of bowed banjo . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Tuning * 3 In use * 4 Artists * 5 The rebec in popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ORIGINS Musicians with citole (left) and rebec or vielle , from the English Queen Mary Psalter , c. 1320. Popular from the 13th to 16th centuries, the introduction of the rebec into Western Europe coincided with the Arabic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula . There is however evidence of the existence of bowed instruments in the 9th century in Eastern Europe. The Persian geographer of the 9th century Ibn Khurradadhbih cited the bowed Byzantine lira (or _lūrā_) as typical bowed instrument of the Byzantines and equivalent to the Arab _rebab _
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Viol
The VIOL /ˈvaɪəl/ , VIOLA DA GAMBA , or (informally) GAMBA, is any one of a family of bowed , fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets on the viol are usually made of gut, tied on the fingerboard around the instrument's neck, to enable the performer to stop the strings more cleanly. Frets improve consistency of intonation and lend the stopped notes a tone which better matches the open strings. Viols first appeared in Spain
Spain
in the mid to late 15th century and was most popular in the Renaissance and Baroque
Baroque
(1600-1750) periods. Early ancestors include the Arabic rebab and the medieval European vielle , but later, more direct possible ancestors include the Venetian viole and the 15th- and 16th-century Spanish vihuela , a 6-course plucked instrument tuned like a lute (and also like a present-day viol) that looked like but was quite distinct from (at that time) the 4-course guitar (an earlier chordophone)
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Citole
String instrument Plucked string instrument HORNBOSTEL–SACHS CLASSIFICATION 321.322-6 (box-necked lute) ( Chordophone
Chordophone
with permanently attached resonator and neck, sounded by a plectrum ) DEVELOPED 13th-14th Centuries from the cithara (lyre) , plucked fiddles and/or lutes RELATED INSTRUMENTS BOWED * Crwth * Guitar fiddle * Rebec * Vielle PLUCKED * Cithara
Cithara
* Cittern
Cittern
* Cythara
Cythara
* Gittern
Gittern
* Guitar
Guitar
* Guitarra latina The CITOLE, also spelled SYTOLE, CYTIOLE, GYTOLLE, was a string musical instrument , closely associated with the medieval fiddles (viol , vielle , gigue ) and commonly used from 1200—1350 Like the modern guitar , it was manipulated at the neck to get different notes, and picked or strummed with a plectrum (the citole's was long, thick, straight and likely made of ivory or wood). Although it was largely out of use by the late 14th century, the Italians "re-introduced it in modified form" in the 16th Century as the cetra (cittern in English), and it was possibly ancestral to the guitar as well
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Stringed Instrument
STRING INSTRUMENTS, STRINGED INSTRUMENTS, or CHORDOPHONES are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some string instruments by plucking the strings with their fingers or a plectrum —and others by hitting the strings with a light wooden hammer or by rubbing the strings with a bow . In some keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord or piano , the musician presses a key that plucks the string or strikes it with a hammer. With bowed instruments, the player rubs the strings with a horsehair bow, causing them to vibrate. With a hurdy-gurdy , the musician operates a mechanical wheel that rubs the strings. Bowed instruments include the string section instruments of the Classical music
Classical music
orchestra (violin , viola , cello and double bass ) and a number of other instruments (e.g., viols and gambas used in early music from the Baroque music era and fiddles used in many types of folk music ). All of the bowed string instruments can also be plucked with the fingers, a technique called "pizzicato ". A wide variety of techniques are used to sound notes on the electric guitar , including plucking with the fingernails or a plectrum, strumming and even "tapping " on the fingerboard and using feedback from a loud, distorted guitar amplifier to produce a sustained sound
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Medieval Music
MEDIEVAL MUSIC consists of songs, instrumental pieces, and liturgical music from about 500 A.D. to 1400. Medieval music was an era of Western music , including liturgical music (also known as sacred) used for the church, and secular music , non-religious music. Medieval music includes solely vocal music, such as Gregorian chant and choral music (music for a group of singers), solely instrumental music , and music that uses both voices and instruments (typically with the instruments accompanying the voices). Gregorian chant was sung by monks during Catholic Mass . The Mass is a reenactment of Christ's Last Supper , intended to provide a spiritual connection between man and God. Part of this connection was established through music. This era begins with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century and ends sometime in the early fifteenth century. Establishing the end of the medieval era and the beginning of the Renaissance music era is difficult, since the trends started at different times in different regions. The date range in this article is the one usually adopted by musicologists
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Violin
The VIOLIN is a wooden string instrument in the violin family . It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments are known, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin , but these are virtually unused in the 2010s. The violin typically has four strings tuned in perfect fifths , and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato ). Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres. They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition and in many varieties of folk music . They are also frequently used in genres of folk including country music and bluegrass music and in jazz . Electric violins are used in some forms of rock music ; further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music . The violin is sometimes informally called a FIDDLE , particularly in Irish traditional music and bluegrass, but this nickname is also used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy , with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries. In Europe it served as the basis for stringed instruments used in western classical music, such as the viola
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Peterborough Psalter
The PETERBOROUGH PSALTER is a name given to two different illuminated manuscripts of the Psalms
Psalms
produced in the scriptorium of Peterborough Abbey . One, from the early 13th century, is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum , Cambridge; the other, from the early 14th century, in the Royal Library of Belgium
Royal Library of Belgium
. CAMBRIDGEThe Peterborough Psalter
Peterborough Psalter
in Cambridge was perhaps produced for Robert of Lindsey , abbot of Peterborough 1214–1222. BRUSSELSThe Peterborough Psalter
Peterborough Psalter
in Brussels was produced for Abbot Godfrey of Croyland (died 1321). REFERENCES * ^ http://www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/collections/illuminatedmanuscripts/MS_12 * ^ http://belgica.kbr.be/nl/coll/ms/ms9961_62_nl.html This article about an illuminated manuscript is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peterborough_Psalter additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Troubadours
A TROUBADOUR (English: /ˈtruːbədʊər/ , French: ; Occitan
Occitan
: trobador, IPA: ) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
(1100–1350). Since the word troubadour is etymologically masculine, a female troubadour is usually called a trobairitz . The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania
Occitania
, but it subsequently spread into Italy
Italy
and Spain
Spain
. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe: the Minnesang
Minnesang
in Germany
Germany
, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal
Portugal
, and that of the trouvères in northern France
France
. Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia defined the troubadour lyric as fictio rethorica musicaque poita: rhetorical, musical, and poetical fiction. After the "classical" period around the turn of the 13th century and a mid-century resurgence, the art of the troubadours declined in the 14th century and eventually died out around the time of the Black Death
Black Death
(1348). The texts of troubadour songs deal mainly with themes of chivalry and courtly love . Most were metaphysical, intellectual, and formulaic. Many were humorous or vulgar satires
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Jongleur
A MINSTREL was a medieval European entertainer . Originally describing any type of entertainer such as a musician , juggler , acrobat , singer or fool , the term later, from the sixteenth century, came to mean a specialist entertainer who sang songs and played musical instruments. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 In literature * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONMinstrels performed songs whose lyrics told stories of distant places or of existing or imaginary historical events. Although minstrels created their own tales, often they would memorize and embellish the works of others. Frequently they were retained by royalty and high society. As the courts became more sophisticated, minstrels were eventually replaced at court by the troubadours , and many became wandering minstrels, performing in the streets; a decline in their popularity began in the late 15th century. Minstrels fed into later traditions of travelling entertainers, which continued to be moderately strong into the early 20th century, and which has some continuity in the form of today's buskers or street musicians. Initially, minstrels were simply servants at court, and entertained the lord and courtiers with chansons de geste or their local equivalent
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