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Video Game Genre
A VIDEO GAME GENRE is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books . For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of where it takes place. As with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Definition * 3 In practice * 4 Studies * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford primarily focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he also stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time." Since then, among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity
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Video Game
A VIDEO GAME is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor . The word _video_ in _video game_ traditionally referred to a raster display device, but as of the 2000s, it implies any type of display device that can produce two- or three-dimensional images . Some theorists categorize video games as an art form , but this designation is controversial. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms ; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles . These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld computing devices . Specialized video games such as arcade games , in which the video game components are housed in a large, typically coin-operated chassis, while common in the 1980s in video arcades , have gradually declined due to the widespread availability of affordable home video game consoles (e.g., PlayStation 4 , Xbox One and Nintendo Wii U ) and video games on desktop and laptop computers and smartphones . The input device used for games, the game controller , varies across platforms
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Arcade Game
An ARCADE GAME or COIN-OP is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades . Most arcade games are video games , pinball machines , electro-mechanical games , redemption games or merchandisers . While exact dates are debated, the golden age of arcade video games is usually defined as a period beginning sometime in the late 1970s and ending sometime in the mid-1980s. Excluding a brief resurgence in the early 1990s, the arcade industry subsequently declined in the Western hemisphere as competing home-based video game consoles such as Playstation
Playstation
and Xbox
Xbox
increased in their graphics and game-play capability and decreased in cost
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Console Game
A CONSOLE GAME is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. The game consists of manipulable images (and usually sounds) generated by a video game console and displayed on a television or similar audio-video system. The game itself is usually controlled and manipulated using a handheld device connected to the console, called a controller . The controller generally contains a number of buttons and directional controls, (such as analogue joysticks ), each of which has been assigned a purpose for interacting with and controlling the images on the screen. The display, speakers, console, and controls of a console can also be incorporated into one small object known as a handheld game . Modern game multimedia usually comes in the form of an disc , which can be inserted into the game console. Recent advances have allowed games and game demos to be downloaded directly to the console via the Internet
Internet
. Simpler consoles, however, may only have a fixed selection of built-in games. Cartridges were previously common storage devices for video game data, but due to technological advances, most video games are now stored on CDs , higher capacity DVDs , or Blu-ray Discs used by the PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
and Xbox One
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Video Game Console
A VIDEO GAME CONSOLE is an electronic , digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is primarily used to distinguish a console machine primarily designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers . An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, display, game controller (joystick, buttons, etc.) and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles , handheld game consoles , microconsoles and dedicated consoles . Although Ralph Baer had built working game consoles by 1966, it was nearly a decade before the _ Pong
Pong
_ game made them commonplace in regular people's living rooms. Through evolution over the 1990s and 2000s, game consoles have expanded to offer additional functions such as CD players , DVD players , Blu-ray disc players, web browsers , set-top boxes and more
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Home Video Game Console
A HOME VIDEO GAME CONSOLE, or simply HOME CONSOLE, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers , as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment. Home consoles are one type of video game consoles , in contrast to the handheld game consoles which are smaller and portable, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place, along with microconsoles and dedicated consoles . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Timeline overview * 1.2 First generation * 1.3 Second generation * 1.4 Third generation * 1.5 Fourth generation * 1.6 Fifth generation * 1.7 Sixth generation * 1.8 Seventh generation * 1.9 Eighth generation * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORYTIMELINE OVERVIEW Further information: List of best-selling game consoles Below is a timeline of each generation with the top three home video consoles of each generation based on worldwide sales. For a complete list of home video consoles released in each generation please see the respective article of each generation. Legend – Unit with the highest sales of its generation. – Unit with the second highest sales of its generation. – Unit with the third highest sales of its generation. – Manufacturer released a home video console during this generation but did not sell the most units. – – Manufacturer didn't release a home video game console during this generation
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Electronic Game
An ELECTRONIC GAME is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play . Video game
Video game
is the most common form today, and for this reason the terms are often mistakenly used synonymously. Other common forms of electronic game include such products as handheld electronic games , standalone systems (e.g. pinball , slot machines , or electro-mechanical arcade games ), and exclusively non-visual products (e.g. audio games ). CONTENTS * 1 Teletype games * 2 Electronic handhelds * 3 Pinball
Pinball
machines and similar devices * 4 Redemption games and merchandisers * 5 Slot machines * 6 Audio games * 7 Video games * 7.1 Arcade games * 7.2 Computer
Computer
video games * 7.3 Console games * 8 Hybrid or Combined Games * 9 Other * 9.1 Electro-mechanical games * 9.2 Non-human games * 10 References TELETYPE GAMES Main article: Text-based game The earliest form of computer game to achieve any degree of mainstream use was the text-based Teletype game. Teletype games lack video display screens and instead present the game to the player by printing a series of characters on paper which the player reads as it emerges from the platen . Practically this means that each action taken will require a line of paper and thus a hard-copy record of the game remains after it has been played
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Audio Game
An AUDIO GAME is an electronic game played on a device such as a personal computer . It is similar to a video game save that there is audible and tactile feedback but not visual. Audio games originally started out as 'blind accessible'-games and were developed mostly by amateurs and blind programmers . But more and more people are showing interest in audio games, ranging from sound artists, game accessibility researchers, mobile game developers and mainstream video gamers . Most audio games run on a personal computer platform, although there are a few audio games for handhelds and video game consoles . Audio games feature the same variety of genres as video games, such as adventure games , racing games , etc. CONTENTS* 1 Audio game
Audio game
history * 1.1 Arcade and one-off handheld audio games – the early years * 1.2 TTS software and the PC – the second wave * 1.3 Console audio games and the modern era * 2 TTS-enabling video games * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links AUDIO GAME HISTORYThe term "electronic game" is commonly understood as a synonym for the narrower concept of the "video game." This is understandable as both electronic games and video games have developed in parallel and the game market has always had a strong bias toward the visual. The first electronic game, in fact, is often cited to be _Cathode-Ray Tube Amusement Device _ (1947) a decidedly visual game
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Handheld Electronic Game
HANDHELD ELECTRONIC GAME(S) are very small, portable devices for playing interactive electronic games , often miniaturized versions of video games . The controls, display and speakers are all part of a single unit. Rather than a general-purpose screen made up of a grid of small pixels , they usually have custom displays designed to play one game. This simplicity means they can be made as small as a digital watch , and sometimes are. The visual output of these games can range from a few small light bulbs or LED
LED
lights to calculaor-like alphanumerical screens; later these were mostly displaced by liquid crystal and vacuum fluorescent display screens with detailed images and in the case of VFD games, color. Handhelds were at their most popular from the late 1970s into the early 1990s. They are the precursors to the handheld game console . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Handhelds today * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYEarly handheld games used simple mechanisms to interact with players, often limited to illuminated buttons and sound effects. Notable early handheld games included Waco 's Electro Tic-Tac-Toe (1972), the Mattel Auto Race (1976), and Mattel Electronic Football (1977), which featured very simple red- LED
LED
displays; gameplay involved the player pressing buttons to move his car or quarterback icon (represented by a bright dot) to avoid obstacles (represented by less bright dots)
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Handheld Video Game
A HANDHELD VIDEO GAME is a video game designed for a handheld device. In the past, this primarily meant handheld game consoles such as Nintendo
Nintendo
's Game Boy line. In more recent history, mobile games have become popular in calculators , personal digital assistants (PDA), mobile phones , digital audio players (e.g., MP3), and other similar portable gadgets. In the past decade, handheld video games currently have become a major sector of the video game market. In 2004 sales of portable software titles exceeded $ 1 billion in the United States
United States
for the first time, an 11% increase from the prior year. For dedicated handheld games that do not have interchangeable cartridges, disks, etc., or are not reprogrammable, see handheld electronic games . For games on mobile phones, see mobile games . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Popular genres * 2.1 Puzzle * 2.2 Platform * 2.3 RPG * 2.4 Classic * 2.5 Card games * 2.6 Strategy games * 3 Features unique to handheld gaming * 3.1 Linking to other handhelds * 3.2 Linking to home consoles * 3.3 Multi-tasking * 4 Availability * 4.1 Gaming platforms * 4.2 Multipurpose gaming platforms * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYHandheld video games grew out of handheld electronic games that were popular from the 1970s through the mid-1990s
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Handheld Game Console
A HANDHELD GAME CONSOLE is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers. Handheld game consoles are smaller than home video game consoles and contain the console, screen, speakers, and controls in one unit, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place. In 1976, Mattel
Mattel
introduced the first handheld electronic game with the release of Auto Race . Later, several companies—including Coleco
Coleco
and Milton Bradley —made their own single-game, lightweight table-top or handheld electronic game devices. The oldest true handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges is the Milton Bradley Microvision in 1979. Nintendo
Nintendo
is credited with popularizing the handheld console concept with the release of the Game Boy in 1989 and as of 2014 continues to dominate the handheld console market with their 3DS systems
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Mobile Game
A MOBILE GAME is a video game played on a feature phone , smartphone , smartwatch , PDA , tablet computer , portable media player or calculator . The earliest known game on a mobile phone was a Tetris variant on the Hagenuk MT-2000 device from 1994. In 1997, Nokia launched the very successful _Snake _. Snake (and its variants), that was preinstalled in most mobile devices manufactured by Nokia, has since become one of the most played video games and is found on more than 350 million devices worldwide. A variant of the _Snake_ game for the Nokia 6110 , using the infrared port, was also the first two-player game for mobile phones. Today, mobile games are usually downloaded from app stores as well as from mobile operator's portals, but in some cases are also preloaded in the handheld devices by the OEM or by the mobile operator when purchased, via infrared connection, Bluetooth , memory card or side loaded onto the handset with a cable
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Online Game
An ONLINE GAME is a video game that is either partially or primarily played through the Internet
Internet
or another computer network. Online games are ubiquitous on modern gaming platforms, including PCs , consoles and mobile devices , and span many genres , including first-person shooters , strategy games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG). The design of online games can range from simple text-based environments to the incorporation of complex graphics and virtual worlds. The prominence of online components within a game can range from being minor features, such as an online leaderboard , to being part of core gameplay , such as directly playing against other players. Many online games create their own online communities, while other games, especially social games, integrate the players' existing real-life communities. Online game culture sometimes faces criticisms for an environment that might promote cyberbullying , violence, and xenophobia . Some gamers are also concerned about gaming addiction or social stigma . Online games have attracted players from a variety of ages, nationalities, and occupations. Online game content can also be studied in scientific field, especially gamers' interactions within virtual societies in relation to the behavior and social phenomena of everyday life
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PC Game
PC GAMES, also known as COMPUTER GAMES or PERSONAL COMPUTER GAMES, are video games played on a personal computer rather than a dedicated video game console or arcade machine . Their defining characteristics include a more diverse and user determined gaming hardware and software, and a generally greater capacity in input, processing, and video output. Home computer games became popular following the video game crash of 1983 leading to the era of the "bedroom coder". In the 1990s, PC games lost mass-market traction to console games before enjoying a resurgence in the mid-2000s through digital distribution . Newzoo, reports that the PC gaming sector is the third largest (and estimated in decline), with the consoles second largest, and across all platforms as of 2016, 2.2 billion gamers generate US$101.1 billion in revenue (i.e. all numbers exclude hardware costs), and "Digital game revenues will account for $94.4 billion or 87% of the global market. Mobile is the most lucrative segment, with smartphone and tablet gaming growing 19% year on year to $46.1 billion, claiming 42% of the market. In 2020, mobile gaming will represent just more than half of the total games market
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Linux Gaming
LINUX GAMING refers to playing and developing video games for the Linux operating system , involving a Linux kernel –based operating system, often used for all computing tasks like surfing the web, office applications, desktop publishing, but also for gaming. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Market share vs. installed base * 3 Supported hardware * 3.1 Performance * 4 Software architecture * 4.1 Linux kernel * 4.2 Available software for video game designers * 4.2.1 Debuggers * 4.2.2 Available interfaces and SDKs * 4.2.3 Available middleware * 4.2.4 Available IDEs and source code editors * 4.3 Multi-monitor * 4.4 Voice over IP * 4.5 Wine * 4.6 Emulators * 4.7 Linux homebrew on consoles * 5 Adoption by game engines * 6 Adoption by video games * 6.1 Free and open-source games * 6.1.1 Original games * 6.1.2 Clones and remakes * 6.2 Proprietary games * 6.2.1 Available on Steam * 6.2.2 Independent game developers * 6.3 Game porters * 6.4 Other developers * 6.5 Commercial games for non-x86 instruction sets * 6.6 Source ports * 6.7 Massively multiplayer online role-playing games * 7 See also * 8 References HISTORY See also: Open source video game § History _ Doom _ was one of the first major commercial games to be released for Linux
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Mac Gaming
MAC GAMING refers to use of video games on Macintosh personal computers. In the 1990s, Apple computers did not attract the same level of video game development as Windows computers due to the high popularity of Windows and, for 3D gaming, Microsoft's DirectX technology. In recent years, the introduction of Mac OS X and support for Intel processors has eased porting of many games, including 3D games through use of OpenGL and more recently Apples own Metal API. Virtualization technology and Boot Camp also permit the use of Windows and its games on Macintosh computers. Today, a growing number of popular games run natively on Mac OS X, though as of 2017 a majority still requires the use of Windows. Nowadays more and more games are being ported to the Mac Platform
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