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Video Game Developer
A VIDEO GAME DEVELOPER is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games . A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming , design , art , testing , etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and usually marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and usually make indie games . A developer may specialize in a certain video game console (such as Nintendo
Nintendo
's Wii U , Microsoft
Microsoft
's Xbox One , Sony
Sony
's PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
), or may develop for a number of systems (including personal computers and mobile devices ). Video-game developers specialize in certain types of games (such as role-playing video games or first-person shooters ). Some focus on porting games from one system to another, or translating games from one language to another. Less commonly, some do other kinds of software-development work in addition to games
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Video Game Industry
The COMPUTER GAME INDUSTRY (sometimes referred to as the INTERACTIVE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY ) is the economic sector involved in the development , marketing and monetizing of video games . It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and employs thousands of people worldwide. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Game industry value chain * 3 Disciplines * 4 History * 4.1 1940s–1960s * 4.2 1970s * 4.3 1980s * 4.4 1990s * 4.5 2000s * 4.6 2010s * 5 Economics
Economics
* 5.1 Retail * 6 Practices * 6.1 Breakaways * 6.2 Piracy * 6.3 Creative control * 6.4 Alternatives * 6.5 Gaming conventions * 7 International practices * 7.1 World trends * 7.2 Conventions * 7.3 Africa * 7.4 Canada * 7.5 China
China
* 7.6 Germany
Germany
* 7.7 Japan
Japan
* 7.8 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 7.9 United States * 7.9.1 History * 7.9.2 Companies * 7.9.3 Regions * 7.9.4 People * 7.9.5 Sports * 8 Trends * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links OVERVIEWThe computer and video game industry has grown from focused markets to mainstream. They took in about US$ 9.5 billion in the US in 2007, 11.7 billion in 2008, and 25.1 billion in 2010 (ESA annual report)
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Video Game Design
VIDEO GAME DESIGN is the process of designing the content and rules of a video game in the pre-production stage and designing the gameplay, environment, storyline, and characters in the production stage . The designer of a game is very much like the director of a film; the designer is the visionary of the game and controls the artistic and technical elements of the game in fulfillment of their vision. Video game design requires artistic and technical competence as well as writing skills. Within the video game industry , video game design is usually just referred to as "game design ", which is a more general term elsewhere. Video game programmers have also sometimes comprised the entire design team. This is the case of such noted designers as Sid Meier , John Romero , Chris Sawyer and Will Wright . A notable exception to this policy was Coleco , which from its very start separated the function of design and programming. As games became more complex and computers and consoles became more powerful, the job of the game designer became separate from the lead programmer. Soon game complexity demanded team members focused on game design. Many early veterans chose the game design path eschewing programming and delegating those tasks to others. With very complex games, such as MMORPGs , or a big budget action or sports title, designers may number in the dozens
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Game Design
GAME DESIGN is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes. Increasingly, elements and principles of game design are also applied to other interactions, particularly virtual ones (see gamification ). Game
Game
design creates goals, rules and challenges to define a board game , card game , dice game , casino game , role-playing game , sport , video game , war game or simulation that produces desirable interactions among its participants and, possibly, spectators. Academically, game design is part of game studies , while game theory studies strategic decision making (primarily in non-game situations). Games have historically inspired seminal research in the fields of probability , artificial intelligence , economics, and optimization theory . Applying game design to itself is a current research topic in metadesign
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Game Art Design
GAME ART DESIGN is a subset of game development . It is the process of creating the artistic aspects for video games. Video game art design begins in the pre-production phase of creating a video game . The video game artists are visual artists involved from the conception of the game and they make rough sketches of the characters, setting, objects, etc. These starting concept designs can also be created by the game designers before the game is moved into actualization. Sometimes these are concept designs are called “programmer art”. After the rough sketches are completed and the game is ready to be moved forward those artists or more artists are brought in to bring these sketches to life through graphic design. The art design of a game can involve anywhere from two people and up. The larger the gaming company is the more people there are likely designing a game. Small gaming companies tend not to have as many artists meaning that their artist must be skilled in several types of art development, whereas the larger the company, although an artist can be skilled in several types of development, the roles each artist plays becomes more specialized
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Video Game Development
VIDEO GAME DEVELOPMENT is the process of creating a video game . Development is undertaken by a game developer , which may range from a single developer to a global team of developers. Traditional commercial PC and console games are normally funded by a publisher , and can take several years to develop. Indie games can take less time and can be produced at a lower cost by individuals and smaller developers. The independent game industry has seen a substantial rise in recent years with the growth of new online distribution systems, such as Steam and Uplay, as well as the mobile game market, such as for Android and iOS devices. The first video games were noncommercial, and were developed in the 1960s. They required mainframe computer 's to run and were not available to the general public for play. Commercial game development began in the 1970s with the advent of first-generation video game consoles and early home computers like the Apple I. Due to low costs and low capabilities of computers, a lone programmer could develop a full game. However, approaching the 21st century, ever-increasing computer processing power and heightened consumer expectations made it difficult for a single developer to produce a mainstream console or PC game. The average cost of producing a triple-A video game slowly rose from US$1–4 million in 2000 to over $5 million in 2006, then to over $20 million by 2010
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Mod (video Gaming)
A MOD (short for "modification") is an alteration that changes some aspect of a video game , such as how it looks or behaves. Mods may range from small changes and tweaks to complete overhauls, and can extend the replay value and interest of the game. The Internet
Internet
provides an inexpensive medium to promote and distribute user created content like mods, an aspect commonly known as Web 2.0 . Video game
Video game
modding was described as remixing of games and can be therefore seen as part of the remix culture as described by Lawrence Lessig . Mods have become an increasingly important factor in the commercial success of some games. Developers such as id Software
Software
, Valve Corporation , Mojang AB , Bethesda Softworks , Firaxis , Crytek , Creative Assembly
Creative Assembly
and Epic Games
Epic Games
provide extensive tools and documentation to assist mod makers, leveraging the potential success brought in by a popular mod like Counter-Strike . In cases where mods are very popular, players might have to clarify that they are referring to the unmodified game when talking about playing a game. The term vanilla is often used to make this distinction. "Vanilla Battlefield 1942 ", for example, refers to the original, unmodified game
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Video Game Producer
A VIDEO GAME PRODUCER is the person in charge of overseeing development of a video game . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types of producers * 3 Responsibilities * 4 Compensation * 5 Education * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe earliest documented use of the term _producer_ in games was by Trip Hawkins , who established the position when he founded Electronic Arts in 1982. Hawkins said in 1983: Producers basically manage the relationship with the artist. They find the talent, work out product deals, get contracts signed, manage them, and bring them to their conclusion. The producers do most of the things that a product manager does. They don't do the marketing, which in some cases product managers do. They don't make decisions about packaging and merchandising, but they do get involved ... they're a little like book editors, a little bit like film producers, and a lot like product managers. Sierra On-Line 's 1982 computer game _Time Zone _ may be the first to list credits for "Producer" and "Executive Producer". As of late 1983 Electronic Arts had five producers: A product marketer and two others from Hawkins' former employer Apple ("good at working with engineering people"), one former IBM salesman and executive recruiter, and one product marketer from Automated Simulations ; it popularized the use of the title in the industry
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Game Programming
GAME PROGRAMMING, a subset of game development , is the software development of video games . Game programming requires substantial skill in software engineering as well as specialization in one or more of the following areas, which overlap heavily to create a game: simulation , computer graphics , artificial intelligence , physics , audio programming , and input . For massively multiplayer online games, additional areas, such as network programming and database programming are often included. Though often engaged in by professional game programmers , many novices may program games as a hobby . CONTENTS* 1 Development process * 1.1 Prototyping * 1.2 Game design * 1.3 Production * 1.4 Testing * 1.5 Nearing completion * 1.6 Maintenance * 1.7 Duration * 2 Tools * 2.1 Programming languages * 2.2 APIs and libraries * 2.2.1 Graphic APIs * 2.2.2 Other APIs * 3 Game structure * 4 Hobbyists * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links * 7.1 Wikis DEVELOPMENT PROCESSProfessional game development usually begins with a game design , which itself has several possible origins. Occasionally the game development process starts with no clear design in mind, but as a series of experiments. For example, game designer Will Wright began development of _ The Sims _ by getting programmers to experiment with several ideas
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Game Programmer
A GAME PROGRAMMER is a software engineer , programmer , or computer scientist who primarily develops codebases for video games or related software , such as game development tools . Game programming has many specialized disciplines, all of which fall under the umbrella term of "game programmer". A game programmer should not be confused with a game designer , who works on game design . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Disciplines * 2.1 Game engine programmer * 2.1.1 Physics engine programmer * 2.1.2 Graphics engine programmer * 2.2 Artificial intelligence programmer * 2.3 Sound programmer * 2.4 Gameplay programmer * 2.5 Scripter * 2.6 UI programmer * 2.7 Input programmer * 2.8 Network programmer * 2.9 Game tools programmer * 2.10 Porting programmer * 2.11 Technology programmer * 2.12 Generalist * 2.13 Lead game programmer * 3 Platforms * 4 Education * 5 Salary * 6 Job security * 7 Languages and tools * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links HISTORY The Apple II series was a popular video game platform during the early home computer era. Despite being outperformed by later systems, it remained popular until the early 1990s. In the early days of video games (from the early 1970s to mid-1980s), a game programmer also took on the job of a designer and artist
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Video Game Publisher
A VIDEO GAME PUBLISHER is a company that publishes video games that they have either developed internally or externally by a video game developer . As with book publishers or publishers of DVD
DVD
movies, video game publishers are responsible for their product's manufacturing and marketing , including market research and all aspects of advertising . They often finance the development, sometimes by paying a video game developer (the publisher calls this _external development_) and sometimes by paying an internal staff of developers called a _studio_. The large video game publishers also distribute the games they publish, while some smaller publishers instead hire distribution companies (or larger video game publishers) to distribute the games they publish. Other functions usually performed by the publisher include deciding on and paying for any licenses used by the game; paying for localization ; layout, printing, and possibly the writing of the user manual; and the creation of graphic design elements such as the box design. Large publishers may also attempt to boost efficiency across all internal and external development teams by providing services such as sound design and code packages for commonly needed functionality
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Game Studies
GAME STUDIES is the study of games, the act of playing them, and the players and cultures surrounding them. It is a discipline of cultural studies that deals with all types of games throughout history. This field of research utilizes the tactics of, at least, anthropology , sociology and psychology , while examining aspects of the design of the game , the players in the game, and finally, the role the game plays in its society or culture. Game studies is oftentimes confused with the study of video games , but this is only one area of focus; in reality game studies encompasses all types of gaming, including sports , board games , etc. A group of academics, museum curators, game designers, archivists, collectors and others, meet annually to share research related to board games. This group, known as the International Board Game Studies Association , grew out of a colloquium organised by Dr Irving Finkel at the British Museum in 1990. A volume of papers related to this event was subsequently published by the British Museum Press as _Ancient Board Games in Perspective_. After the initial colloquium, Dr Alex de Voogt, then of the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, convened a second colloquium, held at the University of Leiden in 1995. It was agreed by the members of the International Board Game Studies Association to meet biennially, and the next event was held at Leiden in 1997
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Game Testing
GAME TESTING, a subset of game development , is a software testing process for quality control of video games . The primary function of game testing is the discovery and documentation of software defects (aka bugs). Interactive entertainment software testing is a highly technical field requiring computing expertise, analytic competence, critical evaluation skills, and endurance. In recent years the field of game testing has come under fire for being excessively strenuous and unrewarding, both financially and emotionally. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Overview * 3 Game tester * 3.1 Roles * 3.2 Employment * 3.3 Compensation * 4 Process * 5 Methodology * 6 Test automation * 6.1 Frameworks * 7 Console hardware * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Research * 12 External links HISTORYIn the early days of computer and video games, the developer was in charge of all the testing. No more than one or two testers were required due to the limited scope of the games. In some cases, the programmers could handle all the testing. As games become more complex, a larger pool of QA resources, called "Quality Assessment" or "Quality Assurance" is necessary. Most publishers employ a large QA staff for testing various games from different developers. Despite the large QA infrastructure most publishers have, many developers retain a small group of testers to provide on-the-spot QA
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Video Game Journalism
VIDEO GAME JOURNALISM is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of video games . It is typically based on a core reveal/preview/review cycle. There has been a recent growth in online publications and blogs. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Print-based * 1.2 Web-based * 1.2.1 New media * 1.2.2 Independent * 1.2.3 The rise of reviews on video-oriented sites * 2 Ethics * 2.1 Conflicts of interest and pressure from game publishers * 2.2 Review scores and aggregate ratings * 2.3 Rumors, confidential information, and blacklisting * 2.4 Social issues * 3 New Games Journalism * 4 Retro game reviews * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYPRINT-BASEDThe first magazine to cover the arcade game industry which is still in continuous publication is the subscription-only trade periodical , _ Play Meter _ magazine, which began publication in 1974 and covered the entire coin-operated entertainment industry (including the video game sector ). Consumer-oriented video game journalism began during the golden age of arcade video games , soon after the success of 1978 hit _ Space Invaders _, leading to hundreds of favourable articles and stories about the emerging video game medium being aired on television and printed in newspapers and magazines
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Level Design
LEVEL DESIGN, ENVIRONMENT DES IGN or GAME MAPPING is a discipline of game development involving creation of video game levels —locales, stages, or missions. This is commonly done using a level editor , a game development software designed for building levels; however, some games feature built-in level editing tools. Level design is both an artistic and technical process. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Process * 2.1 Level bugs * 3 Level designer * 3.1 Notable level designers * 4 Design goals * 4.1 Gameplay alteration * 4.2 Player directing * 5 Hidden features * 6 Tools * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 See also HISTORYIn early days of video games, a single programmer would create the maps and layouts for a game, and a discipline or profession dedicated solely to level design did not exist. Early games often featured a level system of ascending difficulty as opposed to progression of story-line. The first game genre that required significant amounts of time to design areas were text-based games, such as MUDs . Often, promoted users were assigned to create new paths, new rooms, new equipment, and new actions, often using the game interface itself
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Artificial Intelligence (video Games)
In video games , ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE is used to generate responsive or intelligent behaviors primarily in non-player characters (NPCs), allegedly simulating human-like intelligence. The techniques used typically draw upon existing methods from the field of artificial intelligence (AI). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Views * 4 Usage * 4.1 In computer simulations of board games * 4.2 In modern video games * 4.3 Video game
Video game
combat AI * 4.4 Uses in games beyond NPCs * 5 Cheating
Cheating
AI * 6 Examples * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links OVERVIEWThe term game AI is used to refer to a broad set of algorithms that also include techniques from control theory , robotics , computer graphics and computer science in general, and so video game AI may often not constitute "true AI" in that such techniques due not facilitate computer learning or other standard criteria, only constituting "automated computation," or a predetermined and limited set of responses to a predetermined and limited set of inputs
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