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Vickers Wellington
The Vickers Wellington
Vickers Wellington
was a British twin-engined, long-range medium bomber. It was designed during the mid-1930s at Brooklands
Brooklands
in Weybridge, Surrey, led by Vickers-Armstrongs' chief designer Rex Pierson; a key feature of the aircraft is its geodetic airframe fuselage structure, principally designed by Barnes Wallis. Development had been started in response to Air Ministry
Air Ministry
Specification B.9/32; issued in the middle of 1932, this called for a twin-engined day bomber capable of delivering higher performance than any previous design. Other aircraft developed to the same specification include the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley
and the Handley Page Hampden
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Poly(methyl Methacrylate)
Poly(methyl methacrylate)
Poly(methyl methacrylate)
(PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. The same material can be used as a casting resin, in inks and coatings, and has many other uses. Although not a type of familiar silica-based glass, the substance, like many thermoplastics, is often technically classified as a type of glass (in that it is a non-crystalline vitreous substance) hence its occasional historical designation as acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate
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Rolls-Royce Goshawk
The Rolls-Royce Goshawk
Rolls-Royce Goshawk
was a development of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel that used evaporative or steam cooling. In line with Rolls-Royce convention of naming piston engines after birds of prey, it was named after the goshawk. The engine first ran in 1933 and provided 660 horsepower (490 kW). Only a few engines were built as the aircraft designs intended to use it were not adopted by the Royal Air Force. The Goshawk was used to power the Short Knuckleduster, the Supermarine Type 224 (a predecessor to the Supermarine Spitfire) and other prototype aircraft.Contents1 Design and development 2 Variants 3 Applications3.1 Application list4 Specifications (Goshawk I)4.1 General characteristics 4.2 Components 4.3 Performance5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingDesign and development[edit] The Goshawk was developed from the Kestrel IV prototype engine, to use evaporative (also known as "steam") cooling
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New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand
(/njuːˈziːlənd/ ( listen); Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island
South Island
(Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand
New Zealand
is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia
Australia
across the Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life
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Light Bomber
A light bomber is a relatively small and fast type of military bomber aircraft that was primarily employed before the 1950s. Such aircraft would typically not carry more than one ton of ordnance. During World War I
World War I
some air forces began to distinguish between light bombers and the earliest purpose-built attack aircraft (i.e. designs intended for ground attack and maritime strike sorties) which carried out close air support, anti-shipping and similar missions. After World War I, attack aircraft were usually identifiable through their ability to carry multiple, fixed machine guns, automatic cannons and rockets in addition to, or instead of, bombs. Nevertheless, purpose-built light bombers have often served as attack aircraft and vice versa. A sub-type of light bomber also emerged, the fast bomber (German Schnellbomber), which prioritised speed as a self-defense measure; even the bombload was minimised towards this end
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Royal Aircraft Establishment
The Royal Aircraft Establishment
Royal Aircraft Establishment
(RAE) was a British research establishment, known by several different names during its history, that eventually came under the aegis of the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), before finally losing its identity in mergers with other institutions. The first site was at Farnborough Airfield ("RAE
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Farnborough Airfield
Farnborough
Farnborough
may refer to: Australia[edit]Farnborough, Queensland, a locality in the Shire of LivingstoneUnited Kingdom[edit]Farnborough, Hampshire, a town and civil parish in the Rushmoor district of Hampshire, England Farnborough
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Air Cooling
Air cooling
Air cooling
is a method of dissipating heat. It works by expanding the surface area or increasing the flow of air over the object to be cooled, or both. An example of the former is to add cooling fins to the surface of the object, either by making them integral or by attaching them tightly to the object's surface (to ensure efficient heat transfer). In the case of the latter, it is done by using a fan blowing air into or onto the object one wants to cool. The addition of fins to a heat sink increases its total surface area, resulting in greater cooling effectiveness. In all cases, the air has to be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat
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Radiator (engine Cooling)
Radiators are heat exchangers used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine. Internal combustion engines are often cooled by circulating a liquid called engine coolant around the engine block, where it is heated, then through a radiator where it loses heat to the atmosphere, and then returned to the engine. Engine
Engine
coolant is usually water-based, but may also be oil
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Armstrong Siddeley Tiger
The Armstrong Siddeley Tiger
Siddeley Tiger
was a British 14-cylinder air-cooled aircraft radial engine developed by Armstrong Siddeley
Armstrong Siddeley
in the 1930s from their Jaguar engine. The engine was built in a number of different versions but performance and dimensions stayed relatively unchanged
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Bristol Perseus
The Bristol Perseus
Bristol Perseus
was a British nine-cylinder, single-row, air-cooled radial aircraft engine produced by the Bristol Engine Company starting in 1932. It was the first production sleeve valve aero engine.[1]Contents1 Design and development 2 Applications 3 Specifications (Perseus XII)3.1 General characteristics 3.2 Components 3.3 Performance4 See also 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 BibliographyDesign and development[edit] In late 1925 and early 1926, the Royal Aircraft Establishment
Royal Aircraft Establishment
(RAE) published a series of papers by Harry Ricardo
Harry Ricardo
on the sleeve valve principle. The main advantages over the traditional poppet valves was better volumetric efficiency and the ability to operate at higher rotational speeds
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Night Bomber
A night bomber is a bomber aircraft intended specifically for carrying out bombing missions at night. The term is now mostly of historical significance. Night bombing began in World War I
World War I
and was widespread during World War II. A number of modern aircraft types are designed primarily for nighttime bombing, but air forces no longer refer to them as night bombers. More common terms today include interdictor and strike fighter, and such aircraft tend to have all-weather, day-or-night capabilities. World War I[edit] Strategic bombing
Strategic bombing
and night bombing were new in World War I, and there was much experimentation at night with aircraft such as the Gotha G.IV, Gotha G.V, Handley Page Type O, and various giant airplanes such as the Riesenflugzeuge and the Sikorsky Ilya Muromets. Navigation was difficult and precision was almost nonexistent but the psychological effect was strong
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Variable-pitch Propeller
A controllable-pitch propeller (CPP) or variable-pitch propeller is a type of propeller with blades that can be rotated around their long axis to change the blade pitch. Reversible propellers—those where the pitch can be set to negative values—can also create reverse thrust for braking or going backwards without the need to change the direction of shaft revolution.Contents1 Aircraft 2 Ships 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksAircraft[edit]One of a C-130J Super Hercules' 6 bladed Dowty Rotol
Dowty Rotol
R391 composite controllable- and reversible-pitch propellers.A Hamilton Standard
Hamilton Standard
variable-pitch propeller on a 1943 model Stinson V77 ReliantPropellers whose blade pitch could be adjusted while the aircraft was on the ground were used by a number of early aviation pioneers,[1] including A. V. Roe and Louis Breguet. In 1919 L. E
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Formation Flight
Formation flying
Formation flying
is the disciplined flight of two or more aircraft under the command of a flight leader.[1] Military pilots use formations for mutual defense and concentration of firepower.[2] In civil aviation, formation flying is performed at air shows and is also flown for recreation. Formation flying
Formation flying
also has been discussed as a means to reduce fuel use by minimizing drag.[3] Studies of birds have shown that the V formation
V formation
can greatly enhance the overall aerodynamic efficiency by reducing the drag and thereby increasing the flight range.[4] Unmanned aerial vehicle
Unmanned aerial vehicle
formation flight[edit] The challenge of achieving safe formation flight by unmanned aerial vehicles has been extensively investigated in the 21st century with aircraft and spacecraft systems
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Fascist
Fascism
Fascism
(/ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism,[1][2] characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce,[3] which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.[4] The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I
World War I
before it spread to other European countries.[4] Opposed to liberalism, Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism, fascism is usually placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.[5][6][7][4][8][9] Fascists saw World War I
World War I
as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants
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Dictatorship
Dictatorship
Dictatorship
is a system of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by a single party or individual (a dictator) or by a polity and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.[1][2] A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarian societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems. In the past, different religious tactics were used by dictators to maintain their rule, such as the monarchical system in the West. In the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared
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