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Verwaltungsgemeinschaft
MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATIONS (German : Verwaltungsgemeinschaften) are statutory corporations or public bodies created by statute in the German federal states of Bavaria
Bavaria
, Saxony
Saxony
, Thuringia , and Schleswig-Holstein . In Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
the term stipulated municipal association (German : vereinbarte Verwaltungsgemeinschaft) is used. STRUCTUREA municipal association normally consists of several adjacent municipalities located in the same district . It is controlled by a political representative, chairperson or executive board. Depending on the state, this person may be officially retained or appointed as mayor
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Statutory Corporation
A STATUTORY CORPORATION is a corporation created by statute . Their precise nature varies by jurisdiction thus they might be ordinary companies/corporations owned by a government with or without other shareholders, or they might be a body without shareholders which is controlled by national or sub-national government to the (in some cases minimal) extent provided for in the creating legislation. Bodies described in the English language as "statutory corporations" exist in the following countries in accordance with the associated descriptions (where provided). CONTENTS * 1 Australia * 2 Germany * 3 Hong Kong * 4 India * 5 Ireland * 6 Netherlands * 7 United Kingdom * 8 United States * 9 See also * 10 References AUSTRALIAIn Australia , statutory corporations are created by Acts of state or federal parliaments
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Public Body
A STATUTORY CORPORATION is a corporation created by statute . Their precise nature varies by jurisdiction thus they might be ordinary companies/corporations owned by a government with or without other shareholders, or they might be a body without shareholders which is controlled by national or sub-national government to the (in some cases minimal) extent provided for in the creating legislation. Bodies described in the English language as "statutory corporations" exist in the following countries in accordance with the associated descriptions (where provided). CONTENTS * 1 Australia
Australia
* 2 Germany
Germany
* 3 Hong Kong * 4 India * 5 Ireland * 6 Netherlands * 7 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 8 United States * 9 See also * 10 References AUSTRALIAIn Australia
Australia
, statutory corporations are created by Acts of state or federal parliaments
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Statute
A STATUTE is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state , city or country . Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies; they are distinguished from case law or precedent , which is decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies . CONTENTS * 1 Publication and organization * 2 Alternative meanings * 2.1 International law * 2.2 Autonomy statute * 3 Religious statutes * 3.1 Biblical terminology * 3.2 Dharma * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PUBLICATION AND ORGANIZATIONIn virtually all countries, newly enacted statutes are published in some kind of journal, gazette, or chronological compilation, which is then distributed so that everyone can look up the statutory law. A universal problem encountered by lawmakers throughout human history is how to organize published statutes
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Bavaria
BAVARIA /bəˈvɛəriə/ German : _Bayern_ ; Czech : _Bavorsko_), officially the FREE STATE OF BAVARIA (German : _Freistaat Bayern_ ) is a federal state of Germany , occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70.550,19 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state by land area. Its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 12.9 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state (after North Rhine-Westphalia ). Bavaria's capital and largest city, Munich , is the third largest city in Germany . The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and formation as a duchy in the 6th century CE (AD) through the Holy Roman Empire to becoming an independent kingdom and finally a state of the Federal Republic of Germany . The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555
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Saxony
The FREE STATE OF SAXONY (German : _der Freistaat Sachsen_ ; Upper Sorbian : _Swobodny stat Sakska_) is a landlocked federal state of Germany
Germany
, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, Saxony
Saxony
Anhalt , Thuringia
Thuringia
, and Bavaria
Bavaria
, as well as the countries of Poland
Poland
(Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships ) and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Karlovy Vary , Liberec and Ústí nad Labem Regions ). Its capital is Dresden , and its largest city is Leipzig
Leipzig
. Saxony
Saxony
is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with 4 million people
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Thuringia
The FREE STATE OF THURINGIA (English: /θəˈrɪndʒiə/ ; German : _Freistaat Thüringen_, pronounced ) is a federal state in central Germany . It has an area of 16,171 square kilometres (6,244 sq mi) and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states. Most of Thuringia is within the watershed of the Saale , a left tributary of the Elbe . The capital is Erfurt . Thuringia has been known as "the green heart of Germany" (_das grüne Herz Deutschlands_) from the late 19th century, due to the dense forest covering the land. It is home to the Rennsteig , Germany's most well-known hiking trail , and the winter resort of Oberhof making it a well known winter sports destination. Half of Germany's 136 Winter Olympic gold medals (through the Sochi games in 2014) have been won by Thuringian athletes
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Schleswig-Holstein
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN (German: ; Danish : _Slesvig-Holsten_) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany , comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig . Its capital city is Kiel ; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg . Also known in more dated English as SLESWICK-HOLSATIA, the Danish name is _Slesvig-Holsten,_ the Low German name is _Sleswig-Holsteen,_ and the North Frisian name is _Slaswik-Holstiinj._ Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig- Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig) in Denmark
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Baden-Württemberg
BADEN-WüRTTEMBERG (/ˈbɑːdən vɜːrtəmˌbɜːrɡ/ ; German pronunciation: ( listen )) is a state in Germany
Germany
located in the southwest, east of the Upper Rhine
Rhine
. It is Germany’s third largest state in terms of size and population, with an area of 35,751 square kilometres (13,804 sq mi) and 10.8 million inhabitants. The state capital and largest city is Stuttgart
Stuttgart
. The sobriquet Ländle ("small land" or "dear land" in the local dialect) is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg
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Municipality
A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and hamlets . The term _municipality_ may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district . The term is derived from French _municipalité_ and Latin _municipalis_
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Districts Of Germany
The primary administrative subdivision of German states is called a _LANDKREIS_ ("rural district "), except in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein where it is called simply a _KREIS_. Most major cities in Germany are not part of a rural district, but perform district-like functions on their own. In this context, those cities are referred to as _KREISFREIE STADT_ (literally "district-free town") or _STADTKREIS_ ("urban district"). Rural districts are at an intermediate level of administration between the German states (_Länder_) and the municipal governments (_Gemeinden _). They correspond to level 3 administrative units of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS 3), and are roughly equivalent to counties in the United States . Previously, the similar title _Reichskreis_ ( Imperial Circle ) was given to groups of states in the Holy Roman Empire
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Mayor
In many countries, a MAYOR (/ˈmɛər/ or /ˈmeɪər/ , from the Latin
Latin
_maior_ , meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town . Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board
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Municipalities Of Germany
MUNICIPALITIES (_ Gemeinden _, more accurately translated as "communities") are the lowest level of official territorial division in Germany . This is most commonly the fourth level of territorial division, ranking after the _Land _ (state), _Kreis _ (district) and _ Samtgemeinde _ (collective municipality). The _Gemeinde_ which is one level lower in those states also includes _Regierungsbezirke _ (singular: _Regierungsbezirk_) as an intermediate territorial division. The _Gemeinde_ is one level higher if it is not part of a _Samtgemeinde_. Only 10 municipalities in Germany have fifth level administrative subdivisions and all of them are in Bavaria . The highest degree of autonomy may be found in the _Gemeinden_ which are not part of a _Kreis_. These _Gemeinden_ are referred to as _Kreisfreie Städte _ or _Stadtkreise _, sometimes translated as having "city status". This can be the case even for small municipalities
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Samtgemeinde
A SAMTGEMEINDE (German pronunciation: ; see remark) is an administrative division in Lower Saxony , Germany
Germany
. It is equivalent with the Amt ( Schleswig-Holstein , Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Brandenburg
Brandenburg
), and the Verbandsgemeinde ( Rhineland-Palatinate ). It is an association of municipalities , which executes administrative duties for its member municipalities. A Samtgemeinde
Samtgemeinde
should have at least 7,000 inhabitants (§71 paragraph 1 Lower Saxony law on local government). The tasks of the Samtgemeinden may be land use planning , wastewater disposal, social security or the organisation of cemeteries and fire stations
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Verbandsgemeinde
A VERBANDSGEMEINDE (German pronunciation: ; plural VERBANDSGEMEINDEN) is a low-level administrative unit in the German federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt . A Verbandsgemeinde is typically composed of a small group of villages or towns. CONTENTS * 1 Rhineland-Palatinate * 2 Saxony-Anhalt * 3 See also * 4 References RHINELAND-PALATINATEThe state of Rhineland-Palatinate is divided into 163 Verbandsgemeinden, which are municipal associations grouped within the 24 districts of the state and subdivided into 2,257 ORTSGEMEINDEN (singular ORTSGEMEINDE) which comprise single settlements. Most of the Verbandsgemeinden were established in 1969. Formerly the name of the administrative units was _Amt _
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