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Vertical Stabilizer
The vertical stabilizers, vertical stabilisers, or fins, of aircraft, missiles or bombs are typically found on the aft end of the fuselage or body, and are intended to reduce aerodynamic side slip and provide direction stability. It is analogous to a skeg on boats and ships. On aircraft, vertical stabilizers generally point upwards. These are also known as the vertical tail, and are part of an aircraft's empennage. This upright mounting position has two major benefits: The drag of the stabilizer increases at speed, which creates a nose-up moment that helps to slow down the aircraft that prevent dangerous overspeed, and when the aircraft banks, the stabilizer produces lift which counters the banking moment and keeps the aircraft upright at the absence of control input. If the vertical stabilizer was mounted on the underside, it would produce a positive feedback whenever the aircraft dove or banked, which is inherently unstable
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Boeing B-29 Superfortress
The Boeing
Boeing
B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II
World War II
and the Korean War. It was one of the largest aircraft operational during World War II
World War II
and featured state-of-the-art technology. Including design and production, at over $3 billion it was the single most expensive weapons project undertaken by the United States
United States
in World War II, exceeding the cost of the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
by between $1 and 1.7 billion.[4][5] Innovations introduced included a pressurized cabin, dual-wheeled, tricycle landing gear, and an analog computer-controlled fire-control system that directed four remote machine gun turrets that could be operated by a single gunner and a fire-control officer
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Deep Stall
In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases.[1] This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is exceeded. The critical angle of attack is typically about 15 degrees, but it may vary significantly depending on the fluid, foil, and Reynolds number. Stalls in fixed-wing flight are often experienced as a sudden reduction in lift as the pilot increases the wing's angle of attack and exceeds its critical angle of attack (which may be due to slowing down below stall speed in level flight). A stall does not mean that the engine(s) have stopped working, or that the aircraft has stopped moving — the effect is the same even in an unpowered glider aircraft
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Airbus A380
The Airbus
Airbus
A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by European manufacturer Airbus.[6][7] It is the world's largest passenger airliner, and the airports at which it operates have upgraded facilities to accommodate it. It was initially named Airbus A3XX and designed to challenge Boeing's monopoly in the large-aircraft market. The A380 made its first flight on 27 April 2005 and entered commercial service on 25 October 2007 with Singapore Airlines. An improved version, the A380plus, is under development. The A380's upper deck extends along the entire length of the fuselage, with a width equivalent to a wide-body aircraft. This gives the A380-800's cabin 550 square metres (5,920 sq ft) of usable floor space,[8] 40% more than the next largest airliner, the Boeing 747-8,[9] and provides seating for 525 people in a typical three-class configuration or up to 853 people in an all-economy class configuration
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Iberia (airline)
Iberia (Spanish pronunciation: [iˈβeɾja]), legally incorporated as Iberia, Líneas Aéreas de España, S.A. Operadora, Sociedad Unipersonal, is the flag carrier airline of Spain,[5] founded in 1927. Based in Madrid, it operates an international network of services from its main base of Madrid-Barajas Airport.[6] Iberia, with Iberia Regional
Iberia Regional
(operated by an independent carrier Air Nostrum) and with Iberia Express, is a part of Iberia Group. In addition to transporting passengers and freight, Iberia Group carries out related activities, such as aircraft maintenance, handling in airports, IT systems and in-flight catering
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Madrid Barajas Airport
Adolfo Suárez
Adolfo Suárez
Madrid–Barajas Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas [(a)eɾoˈpwerto aˈðolfo ˈswaɾeθ maˈðɾi(ð) βaˈɾaxas]) (IATA: MAD, ICAO: LEMD),[5] commonly known as Madrid–Barajas Airport, is the main international airport serving Madrid
Madrid
in Spain. At 3,050 ha (7,500 acres) in area, it is the largest airport in Europe by physical size along with Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport.[6][7] In 2017, 53.4 million passengers used Madrid–Barajas making it the country's largest and busiest airport, and Europe's sixth busiest. The airport opened in 1928, and has grown to be one of the most important aviation centres of Europe. Located within the city limits of Madrid, it is just 9 km (6 mi) from the city's financial district and 13 km (8 mi) northeast of the Puerta del Sol
Puerta del Sol
or Plaza Mayor de Madrid, Madrid's historic centre
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Bombardier CRJ200
The Bombardier CRJ100 and CRJ200 (formerly known as the Canadair CRJ100 and CRJ200) are a family of regional airliners designed and manufactured by Bombardier. The CRJ had the distinction of marking Canada's entry into the civil jet industry.[2] It was based on the Canadair
Canadair
Challenger business jet. An initial effort to produce an enlarged 36-seat version of the aircraft, known as the Challenger 610E, was terminated during 1981. Shortly after Canadair's privatisation and sale to Bombardier, work on a stretched derivative was reinvigorated; during early 1989, the Canadair
Canadair
Regional Jet program was formally launched. On 10 May 1991, the first of three CRJ100 prototypes conducted its maiden flight. The type first entered service during the following year with its launch customer, German airline Lufthansa. The initial variant, the CRJ100, was soon joined by another model, designated as the CRJ200
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Fokker 70
The Fokker
Fokker
70 is a narrow-body, twin-engined, medium-range, turbofan regional airliner produced by Fokker
Fokker
as a smaller version of the Fokker
Fokker
100. Both the F70 and F100 were preceded by the first jet airliner manufactured by Fokker, the Fokker
Fokker
F28 Fellowship. Since its first flight in 1993, 47 aircraft, plus one prototype, have been manufactured and 34 are still in active service with airlines around the world.Contents1 Design and development 2 Current operators2.1 Airlines 2.2 Government operations3 Specifications 4 Accidents and incidents 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDesign and development[edit]This section needs expansion with: more information about the aircraft's history. You can help by adding to it
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Boeing 727
The Boeing
Boeing
727 is a midsized, narrow-body three-engined jet aircraft built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
from the early 1960s to 1984.[1] It can carry 149 to 189 passengers and later models can fly up to 2,700 nautical miles (5,000 km) nonstop. Intended for short and medium-length flights, the 727 can use relatively short runways at smaller airports. It has three Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines below the T-tail, one on each side of the rear fuselage with a center engine that connects through an S-duct
S-duct
to an inlet at the base of the fin. The 727 is Boeing's only trijet aircraft.[3] The 727 followed the 707, a quad-jet airliner, with which it shares its upper fuselage cross-section and cockpit design
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Vickers VC10
The Vickers
Vickers
VC10 is a mid-sized, narrow-body long-range British jet airliner designed and built by Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
(Aircraft) Ltd and first flown at Brooklands, Surrey, in 1962. The airliner was designed to operate on long-distance routes from the shorter runways of the era and commanded excellent hot and high performance for operations from African airports. The performance of the VC10 was such that it achieved the fastest crossing of the Atlantic by a jet airliner, a record still held to date for a sub-sonic airliner, of 5 hours and 1 minute;[1][2] only the supersonic Concorde
Concorde
was faster
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Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
DC-9 (initially known as Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It first flew and entered airline service in 1965. The DC-9 was designed for frequent, short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982. DC-9-based airliners including the MD-80, MD-90 and Boeing 717
Boeing 717
later followed in production
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PBY Catalina
The Consolidated PBY Catalina, also known as the Canso in Canadian service, was an American flying boat, and later an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used seaplanes of World War II. Catalinas served with every branch of the United States
United States
Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations. During World War II, PBYs were used in anti-submarine warfare, patrol bombing, convoy escorts, search and rescue missions (especially air-sea rescue), and cargo transport. The PBY was the most numerous aircraft of its kind and the last active military PBYs were not retired from service until the 1980s. In 2014, nearly 80 years after its first flight, the aircraft continues to fly as a waterbomber (or airtanker) in aerial firefighting operations all over the world.Contents1 Naming 2 Design2.1 Background 2.2 Development 2.3 Mass-produced U.S
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Experimental Aircraft
An experimental aircraft is an aircraft that has not yet been fully proven in flight. Often, this implies that new aerospace technologies are being tested on the aircraft, though the label is more broad. The term "experimental aircraft" is usually used to refer to aircraft flown with an experimental certificate.[1] In the United States, this includes most homebuilt aircraft; many of which are based on conventional designs and hence are experimental only in name.[2] The term "research aircraft", by contrast, generally denotes aircraft modified to perform scientific studies, such as weather research or geophysical surveying. See also[edit]List of experimental aircraft List of X-planesNotes[edit]^ 14CFR 21.175, US Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 2018-01-12 ^ 14CFR 21.191, US Federal Aviation Administration
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Chrislea Super Ace
The Chrislea Super Ace is a 1940s British four-seat light aircraft built by Chrislea Aircraft Limited.Contents1 History 2 Survivors 3 Variants 4 Specifications (Super Ace) 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The Super Ace was developed from the earlier Chrislea C.H.3 Series 1 Ace, a high-wing four seat cabin monoplane with a tricycle undercarriage and two fins. The Ace had an unusual 'steering wheel' control arrangement which eliminated the conventional rudder bar. The wheel was mounted on a universal joint; turning it applied aileron, moving it vertically applied elevator and sideways the rudder. It originally flew with a single vertical tail but was soon modified with twin fins. The lone C.H.3 Series 1 Ace first flew in September 1946.[1] Soon after the company moved to Exeter, the first production aircraft, the C.H.3 Series 2 Super Ace flew in February 1948. This model was powered by a de Havilland Gipsy Major 10 inline piston engine
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Beechcraft Model 18
The Beechcraft
Beechcraft
Model 18 (or "Twin Beech", as it is also known) is a 6- to 11-seat,[2] twin-engined, low-wing, tailwheel light aircraft manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. Continuously produced from 1937 to November 1969 (over 32 years, a world record at the time), over 9,000 were built, making it one of the world's most widely used light aircraft
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Military Aircraft
A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type.[1] Military aircraft
Military aircraft
can be either combat or non-combat:Combat aircraft are designed to destroy enemy equipment using their own aircraft ordnance.[1] Combat aircraft are normally developed and procured only by military forces. Non-combat aircraft are not designed for combat as their primary function, but may carry weapons for self-defense
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