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Venom (poison)
Venom
Venom
is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.[1] The potency of different venoms varies; lethal venoms are often characterised by the median lethal dose (LD50, LD50, or LD-50), expressed in terms of mass fraction (e.g., milligrams of toxin per kilogram of body mass), that will kill 50% of the target of a specified type (e.g., laboratory mice). Utilization of venom across a large number of species demonstrates an example of convergent evolution and a homoplastic trait. It is difficult to conclude exactly how this trait came to be so intensely widespread and diversified. The multigene families that encode the toxins of venomous animals are actively selected on, creating more diverse toxins with specific functions. Venoms adapt to their environment and victims and accordingly evolve to become maximally efficient on a predator’s particular prey (particularly the precise ion channels within the prey)
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Venom (other)
Venom
Venom
is a class of animal toxins. Venom
Venom
may also refer to:Contents1 Comics 2 Film 3 Music 4 GamesComics[edit]
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Chimaera
Callorhinchidae Chimaeridae RhinochimaeridaeChimaeras[1] the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, rat fish (not to be confused with the rattails), spookfish (not to be confused with the true spookfish of the family Opisthoproctidae), or rabbit fish (not to be confused with the family Siganidae). At one time, a "diverse and abundant" group (based on the fossil record), their closest living relatives are sharks, though in evolutionary terms, they branched off from sharks nearly 400 million years ago and have remained isolated ever since.[2] Today, they are largely confined to deep water.[3]Contents1 Description and habits 2 Classification 3 Phylogenetics 4 Parasites 5 See also 6 ReferencesDescription and habits[edit] Chimaera
Chimaera
egg caseChimaeras live in temperate ocean floors down to 2,600 m (8,500 ft) deep, with few occurring at depths shallower than 200 m (660 ft)
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Topically
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.[1] Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical
Topical
medications may also be inhalational, such as asthma medications, or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth
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Jellyfish
Jellyfish
Jellyfish
or jellies[1] are softbodied, free-swimming aquatic animals with a gelatinous umbrella-shaped bell and trailing tentacles. The bell can pulsate to acquire propulsion and locomotion. The tentacles may be utilized to capture prey or defend against predators by emitting toxins in a painful sting. Jellyfish
Jellyfish
species are classified in the subphylum Medusozoa
Medusozoa
which makes up a major part of the phylum Cnidaria, although not all Medusozoa
Medusozoa
species are considered to be jellyfish. Jellyfish
Jellyfish
are found in every ocean, from the surface to the deep sea. Scyphozoans (the "true jellyfish") are exclusively marine, and some hydrozoans with a similar appearance live in freshwater. Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide
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Sea Anemone
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria. They are named after the anemone, a terrestrial flowering plant, because of the colourful appearance of many. Sea anemones are classified in the phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, subclass Hexacorallia. As cnidarians, sea anemones are related to corals, jellyfish, tube-dwelling anemones, and Hydra. Unlike jellyfish, sea anemones do not have a medusa stage in their life cycle. A typical sea anemone is a single polyp attached to a hard surface by its base, but some species live in soft sediment and a few float near the surface of the water. The polyp has a columnar trunk topped by an oral disc with a ring of tentacles and a central mouth. The tentacles can be retracted inside the body cavity or expanded to catch passing prey. They are armed with cnidocytes (stinging cells)
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Cone Snails
Cone snails, cone shells or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.[1] Until fairly recently, over 600 species of cone snails were all classified under one genus, Conus, in one family, the Conidae. However, in recent years, it was suggested that cone snails should occupy only a subfamily that should be split into a very large number of genera. A 2014 paper attempted to stabilize a newer classification of the group, significantly reducing the number of new genera, but keeping a fairly large number of subgenera
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Coleoids
Subclass Coleoidea,[1][2] or Dibranchiata, is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the various taxa popularly thought of as "soft-bodied" or "shell-less," i.e., octopus, squid and cuttlefish. Unlike its extant sister group Nautiloidea, whose members have a rigid outer shell for protection, the coleoids have at most an internal cuttlebone, gladius, or shell that is used for buoyancy or support. Some species have lost their cuttlebone altogether, while in some it has been replaced by a chitinous support structure. The major divisions of Coleoidea
Coleoidea
are based upon the number of arms or tentacles and their structure. The extinct and most primitive form, the Belemnoidea, presumably had ten equally sized arms, in five pairs numbered dorsal to ventral as I, II, III, IV and V. More modern species either modified or lost a pair of arms
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Venomous Fish
Venomous fish
Venomous fish
produce a strong toxin harmful to humans (called venom) which they deliver by means of a bite, sting, or stab. This results in an envenomation. As a contrast, poisonous fish also produce a strong toxin, but they do not bite, sting, or stab to deliver the toxin. Instead they are poisonous to eat because the human digestive system does not destroy the toxin they contain in their body.[1] Venomous fish don't necessarily cause poisoning if they are eaten, since the digestive system often destroys the venom.[1] A 2006 study found that there are at least 1200 species of venomous fish.[2][3] There are more venomous fish than venomous snakes. In fact, there are more venomous fish than the combined total of all other venomous vertebrates.[2] Venomous fish
Venomous fish
are found in almost all habitats around the world, but mostly in tropical waters
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Fish
Tetrapods Fish
Fish
are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology
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Shark
Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes † Cladoselachiformes † Hybodontiformes † Symmoriida † Xenacanthida
Xenacanthida
(Xenacantiformes) † = extinctSynonymsPleurotremataSharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified within the clade Selachimorpha (or Selachii) and are the sister group to the rays
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Teleost
See textThe teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes,[a] and make up 96% of all extant species of fish. This diverse group arose in the Triassic
Triassic
period, and members are arranged in about 40 orders and 448 families. Over 26,000 species have been described. Teleosts range from giant oarfish measuring 7.6 m (25 ft) or more, and ocean sunfish weighing over 2 t (2.0 long tons; 2.2 short tons), to the minute male anglerfish Photocorynus spiniceps, just 6.2 mm (0.24 in) long. Including not only torpedo-shaped fish built for speed, teleosts can be flattened vertically or horizontally, be elongated cylinders or take specialised shapes as in anglerfish and seahorses
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Apitoxin
Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid containing proteins, which may produce local inflammation. It may have similarities to sea nettle toxin.[1]Contents1 Components 2 Research 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksComponents[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)The main component is melittin, amounting to 52% of venom peptides.[2] Adolapin contributes 2–5% of the peptides.[3][dubious – discuss] Research[edit] Apitoxins are under preliminary research for their potential biological effects, such as in cancer.[4] See also[edit]Apitherapy Bee sting Beekeeping Hive management Honeybee Wasp venomsReferences[edit]^ Czarnetzki, B. M.; Thiele, T.; Rosenbach, T. (February 1990). "Evidence for leukotrienes in animal venoms"
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Monognathus
15, see text.Monognathus, or onejaw, is the only genus of the family Monognathidae of deep-sea, eel-like fishes. The name comes from the Greek monos meaning one and gnathos meaning jaw, a reference to the large mouth in comparison with the rest of the fish, and also the absence of an upper jaw (maxilla and premaxilla bones are absent). The dorsal and anal fins lack bony supports and the pectoral fins are missing. The snout has a fang which is connected to glands. Typical lengths are from 4 to 10 cm (1.5–4 in), the maximum length recorded is 15.9 cm (6.3 in). They are generally black in color[citation needed], and are found at depths of over 2,000 m (6,600 ft).[1] Species[edit] The fifteen known species are:[1] Monognathus ahlstromi Raju, 1974 (Paddletail onejaw) Monognathus
Monognathus
berteli J. G. Nielsen & Hartel, 1996. Monognathus
Monognathus
bertini Bertelsen & J. G
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Catfishes
– Extant families - Ailiidae[1] Akysidae Amblycipitidae Amphiliidae Anchariidae Ariidae Aspredinidae Astroblepidae Auchenipteridae Austroglanididae Bagridae Callichthyidae Cetopsidae Chacidae Clariidae Claroteidae Cranoglanididae Diplomystidae Doradidae Erethistidae Heptapteridae Heteropneustidae Horabagridae
Horabagridae
[1] Ictaluridae Kryptoglanidae Lacantuniidae Loricariidae Malapteruridae Mochokidae Nematogenyiidae Pangasiidae Pimelodidae Plotosidae Pseudopimelodidae Schilbeidae Scoloplacidae Siluridae Sisoridae Trichomycteridaeincertae sedis   Conorhynchos– Extinct family - Andinichthyidae † Catfish
Catfish
(or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish
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