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Venezuela
Coordinates : 7°N 65°W / 7°N 65°W / 7; -65 Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
* _República Bolivariana de Venezuela_ (Spanish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo _ (English: "Glory to the Brave People") Capital and largest city Caracas
Caracas
10°30′N 66°55′W / 10.500°N 66.917°W / 10.500; -66.917 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish b RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES Indigenous languages ETHNIC GROUPS (2011 ) * 51.6%
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Venezuela (other)
VENEZUELA is a country in South America, officially named the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. VENEZUELA may also refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Places * 1.1 States * 1.2 Localities * 2 Music * 3 See also PLACESSTATES * First Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
, the first independent government of Venezuela * Second Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
, republic founded by Simón Bolívar in 1813 * Third Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
, 1817–1819, superseded by Gran Colombia * Gran Colombia
Gran Colombia
, 1819 union of Venezuela
Venezuela
and other South American statesLOCALITIES * Venezuela, Cuba , municipality in Ciego de Ávila Province * Venezuela
Venezuela
(Buenos Aires Metro) , a metro station in Buenos Aires, Argentina * Venezuela
Venezuela
(Pueblo) , Río Piedras, Puerto RicoMUSIC * Venezuela
Venezuela
(album) , a 1958 album by Aldemaro Romero * Venezuela
Venezuela
(song), a song written by Pablo Herrero and José Luis ArmenteroSEE ALSO * Venezuelan (other) * Valenzuela, Philippines This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title VENEZUELA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies ( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa ISO 639-3 spa GLOTTOLOG stan1288 LINGUASPHERE 51-AAA-b Spanish language in the world SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ (_ listen ); español_ (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ (_ listen ), castellano_ (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese . Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century
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Flag Of Venezuela
The current FLAG OF VENEZUELA was introduced in 2006. The basic design includes a horizontal tricolor of yellow, blue, and red, dating to the original flag introduced in 1811, in the Venezuelan War of Independence . Further modifications have involved including a set of stars, multiple changes to the placement and number of stars and inclusion of an optional coat of arms at the upper-left corner. CONTENTS * 1 Original flag * 2 Colors and symbolism * 3 19th-century changes * 4 1954 changes * 5 2006 changes * 6 Customs and regulations * 6.1 Folding the flag * 7 Flag anthem * 8 Student Oath to the Flag * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links ORIGINAL FLAG Detail of The Battle of Carabobo (1887) by Martín Tovar y Tovar The flag is essentially the one designed by Francisco de Miranda
Francisco de Miranda
for his unsuccessful 1806 expedition to liberate Venezuela
Venezuela
and later adopted by the National Congress of 1811. It consisted of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow, blue and red. Miranda's flag is also the inspiration for the flags of Colombia and Ecuador . This original design was first flown on March 12, 1806 at Jacmel , Haiti
Haiti
as Miranda's expedition prepared to make the final leg of its voyage to Venezuela. The flag was first flown over Venezuelan soil at La Vela de Coro , on August 3
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Coat Of Arms Of Venezuela
The current COAT OF ARMS OF VENEZUELA was primarily approved by the Congress on April 18, 1836, undergoing small modifications through history, reaching the present version. The coat of arms was established in the Law of the National Flag, Shield and Anthem (_Ley de Bandera, Escudo e Himno Nacionales_), passed on February 17, 1954, by the military governor of Venezuela, Marcos Pérez Jiménez . The shield is divided in the colors of the national flag . In the dexter chief, on a red field, wheat represents the union of the 20 states of the Republic existing at the time and the wealth of the nation . In sinister chief, on a yellow field, weapons (a sword, a sabre and three lances) and two national flags are tied by a branch of laurel , as a symbol of triumph in war. In base, on a deep blue field, a wild white horse (perhaps representing Simón Bolívar 's white horse _Palomo_) runs free, an emblem of independence and freedom . Above the shield are two crossed cornucopias (horns of plenty), pouring out wealth. The shield is flanked by an olive branch and another of palm , both tied at the bottom of the coat with a large band that represents the national tricolour (yellow for the nation’s wealth, blue for the ocean separating Venezuela from Spain , and red for the blood and courage of the people)
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Gloria Al Bravo Pueblo
"GLORIA AL BRAVO PUEBLO" (_Glory to the Brave People_) was adopted as Venezuela
Venezuela
's national anthem by President Antonio Guzmán Blanco
Antonio Guzmán Blanco
on May 25, 1881. The lyrics were written by the physician and journalist Vicente Salias in 1810. The music was later composed by musician Juan José Landaeta. It is said, however, that the melody has been known since 1840 as _La Marsellesa Venezolana_ (_Venezuelan Marseillaise_), in reference to its subtle similarity to the French national anthem . Some recent investigations have suggested that the real author of the anthem was Andrés Bello , and not Salias, to whom it was originally credited, and the music was composed by another musician called Lino Gallardo . However, this theory has yet to be proven, and lacks any real recognition among the general Venezuelan population, historians, or otherwise
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Caracas
CARACAS (Spanish pronunciation: ; locally ), officially SANTIAGO DE LEóN DE CARACAS, is the capital, the center of the GREATER CARACAS AREA , and the largest city of Venezuela
Venezuela
. Caracas
Caracas
is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas
Caracas
Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range (Cordillera de la Costa). Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 910 m (2,490 and 2,990 ft) above sea level . The valley is close to the Caribbean Sea , separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high (7,200 ft) mountain range , Cerro El Ávila ; to the south there are more hills and mountains. The METROPOLITAN DISTRICT OF CARACAS is made up of five municipalities: Libertador Municipality which is the only administrative division of the Venezuelan Capital District , and four other municipalities, which are within in Miranda State : Chacao , Baruta , Sucre
Sucre
, and El Hatillo . Libertador holds many of the government buildings and is the Capital District (_Distrito Capital_). The Distrito Capital had a population of 2,013,366 as of 2011 , while the Metropolitan District of Caracas was estimated at 3,273,863 as of 2013. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 5,243,301
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Venezuelan Spanish
VENEZUELAN SPANISH (castellano venezolano or español venezolano) refers to the Spanish language as spoken in Venezuela
Venezuela
. Spanish was introduced in Venezuela
Venezuela
by the colonizers . Most of them were from Galicia , Basque Country , Andalusia
Andalusia
and the Canary Islands . Perhaps the last of these has been the most fundamental influence on modern Venezuelan Spanish, to the point that Canarian and Venezuelan accents may seem indistinguishable to other Spanish speakers. Italian and Portuguese immigrants from the late 19th and early 20th century have also had an influence. German settlers also left an influence when Venezuela
Venezuela
was contracted as a concession by the King of Spain to the German Welser banking family ( Klein-Venedig , 1528–1546). The Spaniards additionally brought African slaves . This is the origin of expressions such as chévere ("excellent"), which comes from Yoruba ché egberi. Other non-Romance words came from Native languages, such as guayoyo (a type of coffee ) and caraota (black bean ). The Venezuelan "snob" (or "sifrino" in colloquial Venezuelan Spanish) accent is often thought of as the "pretty-boy/pretty-girl" or "boy band" accent of Spanish
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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Mestizo
MESTIZO (/mɛˈstizoʊ/ ; Peninsular Spanish : , Latin American Spanish , Philippine Spanish : ) is a term traditionally used in Spain, the Philippines, parts of Central America, especially in Belize and Latin America
Latin America
which originally meant a person of combined European and Amerindian or Pacific Islander descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
's control of their New World colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Latin America , Mestizo
Mestizo
has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as Mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry, and with the term "Indian" being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc. Consequently, today, the vast majority of Spanish speaking Latin Americans are regarded as Mestizos, although because of this newer, culturally based definition, this term cannot be taken as indicative of actual ancestry. The term MESTIZAJE – taking as its root _mestizo_ or "mixed" – is the Spanish word for miscegenation , the general process of mixing ancestries
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Venezuelan Of European Descent
EUROPEAN VENEZUELANS or WHITE VENEZUELANS are Venezuelan citizens who self-identify in the national census as white, tracing their heritage to European ethnic groups . According to the official census report, although "white" literally involves external issues such as light skin, shape and color of hair and eyes, among others, the term "white" has been used in different ways in different historical periods and places, and so its precise definition is somewhat confusing. :65 According to the 2011 National Population and Housing Census, 43.6% of the population identified themselves as white people . A genomic study shows that about 61.5% of the Venezuelan gene pool has European origin. Among the Latin American countries in the study (Argentina, Bahamas, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, El Salvador, Ecuador, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela), Brazil, Venezuela, and Argentina exhibit the highest European contribution. The ancestry of White Venezuelans
Venezuelans
is primarily Spanish . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geographic distribution * 2.1 White Venezuelan population by Venezuelan state * 2.2 Percentage of white Venezuelans
Venezuelans
in municipalities * 2.3 Density of white Venezuelans
Venezuelans
in municipalities * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY Spaniards settled Venezuela
Venezuela
during the colonial period
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Afro-Venezuelan
AFRO-VENEZUELANS (Spanish : Afrovenezolanos; negros) are Venezuelans of Sub-Saharan African origin descended from slaves brought to the Western hemisphere by the conquistadors during the Atlantic slave trade . In the 2011 census, they represented 3.6% of the total population of Venezuela. Although many Venezuelans
Venezuelans
have some African ancestry. CONTENTS* 1 History of "African" Venezuelans
Venezuelans
* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Slave trade * 1.2.1 Slave rebellions * 1.3 Abolishment of slavery * 1.4 Aftermath of slavery and racism of the 20th century * 2 Cultural expression * 2.1 Religion * 2.1.1 Religious practitioners * 2.2 Arts and ceremonies * 2.3 Music * 2.4 Folklore * 3 Afro- Venezuelans
Venezuelans
today * 3.1 Identification * 3.2 Location * 3.3 Demography * 4 Notable Afro- Venezuelans
Venezuelans
* 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY OF "AFRICAN" VENEZUELANSEARLY HISTORYSpanish , French , English , and Portuguese slave ships resumed to import Africans of diverse origins, predominantly Manding from the Gold Coast and Bantu from the Congo and Angola
Angola
, until the beginning of the 19th century
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Afro-American Peoples Of The Americas
The AFRICAN DIASPORA IN THE AMERICAS is used to refer to people born in the Americas
Americas
with predominantly African ancestry
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Roman Catholicism
CATHOLICISM (from Greek καθολικισμός, _katholikismos_, "universal doctrine") is a term which in its broadest sense refers to the beliefs and practices of Christian denominations that describe themselves as _Catholic _ in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church , as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: "_ in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church._ The most frequent use is to refer to the faith and practices of the Catholic Church , consisting of the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome . However, the description "Catholic" is also used by other denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Oriental Orthodox Church , the Assyrian Church of the East . It also occurs in some Protestant denominations , notably Anglicanism , as well as Independent Catholicism . The term _Roman Catholic _ is sometimes used for the church in communion with Rome, especially in ecumenical contexts and in countries where other churches use the term _Catholic_, to distinguish it from broader meanings of the term
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Protestant
PROTESTANTISM is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church . It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom , together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy . The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical . With its origins in Germany , the modern movement is popularly considered to have begun in 1517 when Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences , which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo , John Wycliffe , and Jan Hus —only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting movement. Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
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