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Venezuela
Coordinates : 7°N 65°W / 7°N 65°W / 7; -65 Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
* República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Venezuela
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM:
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Atheist
ATHEISM is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities . Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Atheism
Atheism
is contrasted with theism , which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists . The etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods. The term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century
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President Of Venezuela
In politics, PRESIDENT is a title given to leaders of republican states . In the modern world, it is a common title for the head of state in most republics. The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics , the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government . In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president, often charismatically
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Constitutional Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : res publica ) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body. and a republic that exercise power according to the rule of law with a constitution including separation of powers with a separate elected chief executive (a constitutional republic) or representative democracy (a democratic republic )
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Protestant
PROTESTANTISM is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians
Christians
. It originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers , justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works , and the highest authority of the Bible
Bible
alone (rather than with sacred tradition ) in faith and morals (sola scriptura )
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), but GMT
GMT
is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent), was not adopted until 1967. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time
Time
(SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Agnostic
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e AGNOSTICISM is the view that the existence of God
God
or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable . According to the philosopher William L. Rowe , "agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that God
God
exists or the belief that God
God
does not exist". Agnosticism
Agnosticism
is a doctrine or set of tenets rather than a religion . English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley
coined the word "agnostic" in 1869
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Independence
INDEPENDENCE is a condition of a nation , country , or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government , and usually sovereignty , over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory . CONTENTS* 1 Definition of independence * 1.1 Distinction between independence and autonomy * 2 Declarations of independence * 3 Historical overview * 4 Continents * 5 Notes * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Article note DEFINITION OF INDEPENDENCEWhether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as a legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power — with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization — within a state, which as such may remain unaltered
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Common Era
COMMON ERA or CURRENT ERA (CE) is a year-numbering system (calendar era ) for the Julian and Gregorian calendars that refers to the years since the start of this era, that is, the years beginning with AD 1. The preceding era is referred to as BEFORE THE COMMON or CURRENT ERA (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era
Dionysian era
system, which distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, " year of Lord") and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2017 CE" corresponds to "AD 2017" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". The year-numbering system for the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is the most widespread civil calendar system used in the world today
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Roman Catholicism
The CATHOLIC CHURCH, also known as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the largest Christian church , with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation . Headed by the Bishop of Rome
Rome
, known as the Pope
Pope
, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
. Its central administration, the Holy See
Holy See
, is in the Vatican City
Vatican City
, enclaved within Rome
Rome
, Italy
Italy

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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Gini Coefficient
In economics , the GINI COEFFICIENT (sometimes expressed as a GINI RATIO or a normalized GINI INDEX) (/dʒini/ jee-nee ) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian : Variabilità e mutabilità). The Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income ). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income)
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) 6 other official names * ARAGONESE : Reino d'Espanya ASTURIAN : Reinu d'España BASQUE : Espainiako Erresuma CATALAN : Regne d'Espanya GALICIAN : Reino de España OCCITAN : Reiaume d'Espanha Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
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