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Vehicle
A vehicle (from Latin: vehiculum[1]) is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo. Typical vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), watercraft (ships, boats), aircraft and spacecraft.[2] Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, tracked, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, also internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms and definitions.[3]Contents1 History 2 Most popular vehicles 3 Locomotion3.1 Energy source 3.2 Motors and engines 3.3 Converting energy to work 3.4 Friction4 Control4.1 Steering 4.2 Stopping5 Legislation5.1 European Union 5.2 Licensing 5.3 Registration 5.4 Mandatory safety equipment6 Right-of-way 7 Safety 8 See also 9 ReferencesHistory[edit]This article may require cleanup to meet's quality standards
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Montgolfier Brothers
Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) were paper manufacturers from Annonay, in Ardèche, France best known as inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. They launched the first piloted ascent, carrying Étienne
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Dark Ages (historiography)
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.[1][2] The term employs traditional light-versus-darkness imagery to contrast the era's "darkness" (lack of records) with earlier and later periods of "light" (abundance of records).[3] The concept of a "Dark Age" originated in the 1330s with the Italian scholar Petrarch, who regarded the post-Roman centuries as "dark" compared to the light of classical antiquity.[3][4] The phrase "Dark Age" itself derives from the Latin
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Camel
Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camelus ferus †Camelus gigas (fossil)[1] † Camelus moreli (fossil) †Camelus sivalensis (fossil)[2]SynonymsListCamellus Molina, 1782 Dromedarius Gloger, 1841A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. There are three surviving species of camel: the one-humped dromedary (which makes up 94% of the world's camel population), and the two-humped Bactrian and wild Bactrian species. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food (milk and meat) and textiles (fiber and felt from hair)
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Wagonway
Wagonways (or Waggonways) consisted of the horses, equipment and tracks used for hauling wagons, which preceded steam-powered railways. The terms plateway, tramway and dramway were used. The advantage of wagonways was that far bigger loads could be transported with the same power.Contents1 Ancient systems 2 Wooden rails 3 Metal rails3.1 Plateways, Flangeways 3.2 Edgeways4 Steam power 5 Pole road 6 Decline 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksAncient systems[edit] The earliest[citation needed] evidence is of the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos
Diolkos
paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece
Greece
from around 600 BC.[1][2][3][4][5] Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route
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Diolkos
The Diolkos
Diolkos
(Δίολκος, from the Greek διά, dia "across" and ὁλκός, holkos "portage machine"[1]) was a paved trackway near Corinth
Corinth
in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
which enabled boats to be moved overland across the Isthmus of Corinth. The shortcut allowed ancient vessels to avoid the long and dangerous circumnavigation of the Peloponnese peninsula. The phrase "as fast as a Corinthian", penned by the comic playwright Aristophanes, indicates that the trackway was common knowledge and had acquired a reputation for swiftness.[2] The main function of the Diolkos
Diolkos
was the transfer of goods, although in times of war it also became a preferred means of speeding up naval campaigns. The 6 km (3.7 mi) to 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long roadway was a rudimentary form of railway,[3] and operated from c
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Isthmus Of Corinth
The Isthmus
Isthmus
of Corinth
Corinth
is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. The word "isthmus" comes from the Ancient Greek word for "neck" and refers to the narrowness of the land.[1] The Isthmus
Isthmus
was known in the ancient world as the landmark separating the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
from mainland Greece. In the first century AD the geographer Strabo[2] noted a stele on the Isthmus
Isthmus
of Corinth, which bore two inscriptions. One towards the East, i.e. towards Megara, reading: "Here is not Peloponnesus, but Ionia" (τάδ᾽ οὐχὶ Πελοπόννησος, ἀλλ᾽ Ἰωνία) and the one towards the West, i.e
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Ma Jun
Ma Jun
Ma Jun
(fl. 220–265),[1] courtesy name Deheng, was a Chinese mechanical engineer and politician who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period of China. His most notable invention was that of the south-pointing chariot, a directional compass vehicle which actually had no magnetic function, but was operated by use of differential gears (which applies equal amount of torque to driving wheels rotating at different speeds).[2] It is because of this revolutionary device (and other achievements) that Ma Jun
Ma Jun
is known as one of the most brilliant mechanical engineers and inventors of his day (alongside Zhang Heng
Zhang Heng
of the earlier Eastern Han dynasty). The device was re-invented by many after Ma Jun, including the astronomer and mathematician Zu Chongzhi
Zu Chongzhi
(429–500)
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Freiburg Minster
Freiburg Minster
Freiburg Minster
(German: Freiburger Münster or Münster Unserer Lieben Frau) is the cathedral of Freiburg im Breisgau, southwest Germany. The last duke of Zähringen had started the building around 1200 in romanesque style. The construction continued in 1230 in Gothic style. The minster was partly built on the foundations of an original church that had been there from the beginning of Freiburg, in 1120. In the Middle Ages, Freiburg lay in the Diocese
Diocese
of Konstanz
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Logboat
A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree trunk. Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. Monoxylon (μονόξυλον) (pl: monoxyla) is Greek -- mono- (single) + ξύλον xylon (tree) -- and is mostly used in classic Greek texts. In Germany
Germany
they are called einbaum ("one tree" in English). Some, but not all, pirogues are also constructed in this manner. Dugouts are the oldest boats archaeologists have found, dating back about 8,000 years to the Neolithic Stone Age.[1] This is probably because they are made of massive pieces of wood, which tend to preserve better than, e.g., bark canoes
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Matthäus Lang
Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg
Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg
(1469 – 30 March 1540) was a statesman of the Holy Roman Empire, a Cardinal and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1519 to his death. Matthäus Lang was the son of a burgher of Augsburg
Augsburg
and later received the noble title of Wellenburg after a castle near his hometown that came into his possession in 1507. After studying at Ingolstadt, Vienna and Tübingen he entered the service of Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg and quickly made his way to the front. He was also one of the most trusted advisers of Frederick's son and successor Maximilian I, and his services were rewarded in 1500 with the provostship of the cathedral at Augsburg
Augsburg
and five years later with the position of the Bishop of Gurk
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Reisszug
The Reisszug
Reisszug
(also spelt Reißzug or Reiszug) is a private cable railway providing goods access to the Hohensalzburg Castle
Hohensalzburg Castle
at Salzburg in Austria. It is notable for its extreme age, as it is believed to date back to either 1495 or 1504. The Reisszug
Reisszug
should not be confused with the Festungsbahn, a funicular that provides public access to the Hohensalzburg Castle, and which dates from 1892.[1]Contents1 History 2 Technical parameters 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The line was first documented in 1515 by Cardinal Matthäus Lang, who would later become Archbishop of Salzburg. These dates would make it the oldest cable railway still in existence, and possibly the oldest existing railway
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Hohensalzburg Castle
Hohensalzburg Castle
Hohensalzburg Castle
(German: Festung Hohensalzburg, literally "High Salzburg
Salzburg
Fortress") sits atop the Festungsberg, a small hill in the Austrian city of Salzburg. Erected at the behest of the Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg
Salzburg
with a length of 250 m (820 ft) and a width of 150 m (490 ft), it is one of the largest medieval castles in Europe
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Hemp
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English
Old English
hænep),[1] typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa pla
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