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Vatteluttu
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet, also spelled Vattezhutthu (literally "rounded script", Tamil: வட்டெழுத்து, vaṭṭeḻuttu, Tamil pronunciation: [ʋəʈːeɻʉt̪ːʉ]; Malayalam: വട്ടെഴുത്ത് vaṭṭeḻuttŭ) is an abugida writing system originating from the ancient Tamil people
Tamil people
of South India. Developed from Tamil-Brahmi, Vatteluttu
Vatteluttu
is one of the three main alphabet systems developed by Tamil people
Tamil people
to write the Proto-Tamil language, alongside the ancient Grantha or Pallava alphabet and the Tamil script. The syllabic alphabet is attested from the 6th century CE to the 14th century in present-day Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Kerala
Kerala
states of India.[1] It was later supplanted by modern Tamil script and Malayalam script
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Mojibake
Mojibake
Mojibake
(文字化け) (IPA: [mod͡ʑibake]) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.[1] The result is a systematic replacement of symbols with completely unrelated ones, often from a different writing system. This display may include the generic replacement character � in places where the binary representation is considered invalid. A replacement can also involve multiple consecutive symbols, as viewed in one encoding, when the same binary code constitutes one symbol in the other encoding. This is either because of differing constant length encoding (as in Asian 16-bit encodings vs European 8-bit encodings), or the use of variable length encodings (notably UTF-8
UTF-8
and UTF-16). Failed rendering of glyphs due to either missing fonts or missing glyphs in a font is a different issue that is not to be confused with mojibake
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South India
Most populous cities (2011)Chennai Bengaluru Hyderabad Trivandrum Coimbatore Madurai Mysore Ernakulam VisakhapatnamArea • Total 635,780 km2 (245,480 sq mi)Population • Total 253,051,953 • Density 400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)Official languagesTelugu Tamil Kannada Malayalam Urdu Tulu South India
South India
is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Telangana
Telangana
as well as the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2 or 245,480 sq mi)
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Chola Empire
List of Chola
Chola
kings and emperorsEarly CholasEllalan Kulakkottan Ilamchetchenni Karikala Nedunkilli Nalankilli Killivalavan Kopperuncholan Kochchenganan PerunarkilliInterregnum (c. 200 – c. 848)Medieval CholasVijayalaya 848–891(?)Aditya I 891–907Parantaka I 907–950Gandaraditya 950–957Arinjaya 956–957Sundara (Parantaka II) 957–970Aditya II (co-regent)Uttama 970–985Rajaraja I 985–1014Rajendra I 1012–1044Rajadhiraja 1044–1054Rajendra II 1054–1063Virar
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Thanjavur
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,[1] is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur
Thanjavur
is the headquarters of the Thanjavur
Thanjavur
District. The city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta
Cauvery Delta
and is known as the " Rice
Rice
bowl of Tamil Nadu"
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Brahadeeswarar Temple
Brihadishvara Temple, actually called as Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil, is a Hindu temple
Hindu temple
dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
located in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.[1][3] It is one of the largest South Indian temple and an exemplary example of a fully realized Tamil architecture.[4] It is called as Dhakshina Meru of south. Built by Raja Raja Chola I
Raja Raja Chola I
between 1003 and 1010 AD, the temple is a part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
known as the "Great Living Chola Temples", along with the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
era Gangaikonda Cholapuram temple and Airavatesvara temple
Airavatesvara temple
that are about 70 kilometres (43 mi) and 40 kilometres (25 mi) to its northeast respectively.[5] The original monuments of this 11th century temple were built around a moat
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Early Indian Epigraphy
Indian
Indian
or Indians may refer to something or someone of, from, or associated with the nation of India
India
or with the indigenous people of the Americas.
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Trincomalee
Trincomalee (English: /ˌtrɪŋkoʊməˈliː/; Tamil: திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai; Sinhalese: ත්‍රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) also known as Gokanna,[1] is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. Located on the east coast of the island overlooking the Trincomalee Harbour, 113 miles south of Jaffna and 69 miles north of Batticaloa, Trincomalee has been one of the main centres of Sri Lankan Tamil language speaking culture on the island for over two millennia. With a population of 99,135,[2] the city is built on a peninsula of the same name, which divides its inner and outer harbours. People from Trincomalee are known as Trincomalians and the local authority is Trincomalee Urban Council
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Kerala
Kerala
Kerala
(/ˈkɛrələ/), called Keralam in Malayalam
Malayalam
(where Kerala
Kerala
is the adjectival form), is a state in South India
India
on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea
Lakshadweep Sea
to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala
Kerala
is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
is the largest city in the state
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Tamil Nadu
^# Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana
is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Tamil Mother" is the state song/anthem. ^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
on 14 January 1969[9] ^^ Tamil is the official language of the state. English is declared as an additional official language for communication purposes.[8]SymbolsEmblem Srivilliputhur
Srivilliputhur
Andal templeLanguageTamilSong"Invocation to Goddess Tamil"DanceBharathanattiyamAnimalNilgiri tahrBirdEmerald doveFlowerGloriosa lilyTreePalm treeSportKabaddi Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(Tamil pronunciation: [t̪amiɻ n̪aːᶑu] ( listen) literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai
Chennai
(formerly known as Madras)
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Tamil People
The Tamil people
Tamil people
(Tamil: தமிழர், tamiẓhar (singular) ? [t̪ɐmɪɻɐɾ], or Tamil: தமிழர்கள், tamiẓarkaḷ (plural) ? [t̪ɐmɪɻɐɾxɐɭ]), also known as Tamilar, Tamilans,[6][7][8] or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory
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C. Sivarama Murti
Calambur Sivaramamurti, (1909–1983) was an Indian museologist, art historian and epigraphist who is primarily known for his work as curator in the Government Museum, Chennai.[1] and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar. His entire life has been devoted to the study and exposition of various aspects of Indian art. Apart from authoring several monographs, guide books on Indian art, he also wrote a seminal work on South Indian epigraphy. After a brilliant academic career, C. Sivaramamurti
C. Sivaramamurti
entered the museum profession as curator for Archaeology in the Madras Museum. He then joined the Archaeological Survey of India
Archaeological Survey of India
as Superintendent, Archaeological Section, Indian Museum, Calcutta, whence he came over to the National Museum as Keeper and rose as Assistant Director and finally became the Director
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Indian Copper Plate Inscriptions
Indian copper plate inscriptions
Indian copper plate inscriptions
play an important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. Prior to their discovery, historians were forced to rely on ambiguous archaeological findings such as religious text of uncertain origin and interpretations of bits of surviving traditions, patched together with travel journals of foreign visitors along with a few stone inscriptions
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Grapheme
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.[1] An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols. A grapheme can also be construed as a graphical sign that independently represents a portion of linguistic material.[2] The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō), meaning 'write', and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics. The concept of graphemes is an abstract one and similar to the notion in computing of a character. By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph
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