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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages
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Consonant Cluster
In linguistics , a CONSONANT CLUSTER, CONSONANT SEQUENCE or CONSONANT COMPOUND is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel . In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits. Some linguists argue that the term can only be properly applied to those consonant clusters that occur within one syllable . Others contend that the concept is more useful when it includes consonant sequences across syllable boundaries. According to the former definition, the longest consonant clusters in the word extra would be /ks/ and /tr/, whereas the latter allows /kstr/. CONTENTS * 1 Phonotactics * 2 Loanwords * 3 English * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PHONOTACTICSLanguages' phonotactics differ as to what consonant clusters they permit. Many languages are more restrictive than English in terms of consonant clusters
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Code-switching
In linguistics , CODE-SWITCHING occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages , or language varieties , in the context of a single conversation. Multilinguals , speakers of more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple languages when conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety. Code-switching is distinct from other language contact phenomena, such as borrowing , pidgins and creoles , loan translation (calques) , and language transfer (language interference). Borrowing affects the lexicon , the words that make up a language, while code-switching takes place in individual utterances . Speakers form and establish a pidgin language when two or more speakers who do not speak a common language form an intermediate, third language
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Vowel Shift
A VOWEL SHIFT is a systematic sound change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language . The best-known example in the English language
English language
is the Great Vowel Shift , which began in the 15th century. The Greek language
Greek language
also underwent a vowel shift near the beginning of the Common Era
Common Era
, which included iotacism . Among the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, the Canaanite languages underwent a shift in which Proto-Semitic *ā became ō in Proto-Canaanite (a language likely very similar to Biblical Hebrew ). A vowel shift can involve a merger of two previously different sounds, or it can be a chain shift . EXAMPLESOne of the several major vowel shifts that is currently underway in the US is the Northern Cities Vowel Shift
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Plural
The PLURAL (sometimes abbreviated PL), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number . Plural of nouns typically denote a quantity other than the default quantity represented by a noun, which is generally one (the form that represents this default quantity is said to be of singular number). Most commonly, therefore, plurals are used to denote two or more of something, although they may also denote more than fractional, zero or negative amounts. An example of a plural is the English word cats, which corresponds to the singular cat. Words of other types, such as verbs , adjectives and pronouns , also frequently have distinct plural forms, which are used in agreement with the number of their associated nouns. Some languages also have a dual (denoting exactly two of something) or other systems of number categories
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Grammatical Mood
In linguistics , GRAMMATICAL MOOD (also MODE) is a grammatical feature of verbs , used for signaling modality . :p.181; That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying (e.g. a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.). The term is also used more broadly to describe the syntactic expression of modality, that is, the use of verb phrases that do not involve inflexion of the verb itself. Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect , although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. (See tense–aspect–mood for a discussion of this.) Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogatory, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. These are all finite forms of the verb
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Passive Voice
PASSIVE VOICE is a grammatical voice common in many languages. In a clause with passive voice, the grammatical subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb – that is, the person or thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed. This contrasts with active voice , in which the subject has the agent role. For example, in the passive sentence "The tree was pulled down", the subject (the tree) denotes the patient rather than the agent of the action. In contrast, the sentences "Someone pulled down the tree" and "The tree is down" are active sentences. Typically, in passive clauses, what is usually expressed by the object (or sometimes another argument ) of the verb is now expressed by the subject, while what is usually expressed by the subject is either deleted, or is indicated by some adjunct of the clause
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Koiné Language
In linguistics , a KOINé LANGUAGE ( Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects ) of the same language. Since speakers already understood one another from before the advent of the koiné, the koineisation process is not as drastic as pidginization and creolization . Unlike pidginization and creolization, there is no "target" within Koine formation. It involves continuity in that speakers do not need to abandon their own linguistic varieties. Normal influence between neighbouring dialects is not regarded as koineisation. A koiné variety emerges as a new spoken variety in addition to the originating dialects; it does not change any existing dialect. That separates koineisation from normal evolution of dialects
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Pidgin
A PIDGIN /ˈpɪdʒɪn/ , or PIDGIN LANGUAGE, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade , or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language. A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from a multitude of languages as well as onomatopoeia
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Prestige Dialect
PRESTIGE is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community , relative to other languages or dialects. The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics provides one explanation for the phenomenon of variation in form, among speakers of a language or languages. Prestige varieties are those varieties which are generally considered, by a society, to be the most correct or otherwise superior variety. The prestige variety, in many cases, is the standard form of the language though there are exceptions, particularly in situations of covert prestige where a non-standard dialect is highly valued. Sociolinguistic prestige is especially visible in situations where two or more distinct languages are in use, and in diverse , socially stratified urban areas , in which there are likely to be speakers of different languages and/or dialects interacting frequently
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Regional Language
A REGIONAL LANGUAGE is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state , whether it be a small area, a federal state or province , or some wider area. Internationally, for the purposes of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , "regional or minority languages" means languages that are: * traditionally used within a given territory of a State by nationals of that State who form a group numerically smaller than the rest of the State's population; and * different from the official language(s) of that State Recognition of regional or minority languages must not be confused with recognition as an official language
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Dialect Leveling
DIALECT LEVELLING or DIALECT LEVELING is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects , often by language standardization . It has been observed in most languages with large numbers of speakers after industrialisation and modernisation of the areas in which they are spoken
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Prestige (sociolinguistics)
PRESTIGE is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community , relative to other languages or dialects. The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics provides one explanation for the phenomenon of variation in form, among speakers of a language or languages. Prestige varieties are those varieties which are generally considered, by a society, to be the most correct or otherwise superior variety. The prestige variety, in many cases, is the standard form of the language though there are exceptions, particularly in situations of covert prestige where a non-standard dialect is highly valued. Sociolinguistic prestige is especially visible in situations where two or more distinct languages are in use, and in diverse , socially stratified urban areas , in which there are likely to be speakers of different languages and/or dialects interacting frequently
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Creole Language
A CREOLE LANGUAGE is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages. While the concept is similar to that of a mixed or hybrid language , in the strict sense of the term, a mixed/hybrid language has derived from two or more languages, to such an extent that it is no longer closely related to the source languages. Creoles also differ from pidgins in that, while a pidgin has a highly simplified linguistic structure that develops as a means of establishing communication between two or more disparate language groups, a creole language is more complex, used for day-to-day purposes in a community, and acquired by children as a native language . Creole languages, therefore, have a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar . The precise number of creole languages is not known, particularly as many are poorly attested or documented, but the list of creole languages shows that creoles exist around the world
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Analytic Language
In linguistic typology , an ANALYTIC LANGUAGE is a language with a low morpheme -per-word ratio, as opposed to synthetic language , with a high morpheme-per-word ratio. An analytic language conveys grammatical relationships with relatively minimal use, or in some cases no use, of inflectional morphemes . A grammatical construction can similarly be called ANALYTIC if it uses unbound morphemes , which are separate words, and/or word order . Analytic languages rely heavier on the use of definite and indefinite articles , which tend to be less prominently used or absent in strongly synthetic languages; stricter word order; various prepositions , postpositions , particles and modifiers , and context . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Isolating language * 3 List of analytic languages * 4 See also * 5 References BACKGROUNDThe term "analytic" is commonly used in a relative rather than an absolute sense
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