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Varieties Of Arabic
There are many varieties of Arabic
Arabic
(dialects or otherwise) in existence. Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family that originated on the Arabian Peninsula . The largest divisions occur between the spoken languages of different regions. Some VARIETIES OF ARABIC in North Africa
North Africa
, for example, are incomprehensible to an Arabic
Arabic
speaker from the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
. Within these broad regions further and considerable geographic distinctions exist, within countries, across country borders, even between cities and villages. Another major distinction is to be made between the widely diverging colloquial spoken varieties, used for nearly all everyday speaking situations, and the formal standardized language, found mostly in writing or in prepared speech. The regionally prevalent variety is learned as the speaker's first language while the formal language is subsequently learned in school. The formal language itself varies between its modern iteration, Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(often called MSA in English) and the Classical Arabic
Arabic
that serves as its basis, though Arabic
Arabic
speakers typically do not make this distinction
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Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. LITERATURE * Cantineau, Jean (1955). "La dialectologie arabe", Orbis 4:149–169. * Fischer, Wolfdietrich, & Otto Jastrow (ed) (1980). Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte, Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. * Kaye, Alan S., & Judith Rosenhouse (1997). "Arabic Dialects and Maltese", The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 263–311. * Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995)
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Arab World
The ARAB WORLD (Arabic : العالم العربي‎‎ _al-ʿālam al-ʿarabī_; formally: ARAB HOMELAND, الوطن العربي _al-wațan al-ʿarabī_), also known as the ARAB NATION (الأمة العربية _al-ʾummah al-ʿarabīah_) or the ARAB STATES, currently consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League . These Arab states occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age. In the Middle Ages, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates . Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire . The Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of Arab people and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries; a project known as Pan-Arabism
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Variety (linguistics)
In sociolinguistics a VARIETY, also called a LECT, is a specific form of a language or language cluster . This may include languages , dialects , registers , styles or other forms of language, as well as a standard variety. The use of the word "variety" to refer to the different forms avoids the use of the term language, which many people associate only with the standard language, and the term dialect, which is often associated with non-standard varieties thought of as less prestigious or "correct" than the standard. Linguists speak of both standard and non-standard varieties. "Lect" avoids the problem in ambiguous cases of deciding whether or not two varieties are distinct languages or dialects of a single language. Variation at the level of the lexicon , such as slang and argot , is often considered in relation to particular styles or levels of formality (also called registers), but such uses are sometimes discussed as varieties as well. CONTENTS * 1 Dialects * 2 Standard varieties * 3 Registers and styles * 4 Idiolect * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DIALECTS Main article: Dialect
Dialect
O'Grady et al. define dialect: "A regional or social variety of a language characterized by its own phonological , syntactic , and lexical properties." A variety spoken in a particular region is called a regional dialect; some regional varieties are called topolects, especially to discuss varieties of Chinese
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Arabic
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic : العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic : عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti- Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam . Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary . However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties
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Dialect
The term DIALECT (from Latin _dialectus_, _dialectos_, from the Ancient Greek word διάλεκτος, _diálektos_, "discourse", from διά, _diá_, "through" and λέγω, _légō_, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena: * One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often mutually intelligible , especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum . The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class or ethnicity . A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect , a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed as ethnolect , and a regional dialect may be termed a regiolect. According to this definition, any variety of a given language constitutes "a dialect", including any standard varieties . In this case, the distinction between the "standard language" (i.e. the "standard" dialect of a particular language) and the "nonstandard" dialects of the same language is often arbitrary and based on social, political, cultural, or historical considerations
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis . The most widely spoken Semitic languages
Semitic languages
today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic
Arabic
(300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew
Hebrew
(unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1 speakers), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (520,000 speakers)
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic
. It is also the most widely spoken language within the Semitic branch, and includes Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
and spoken colloquial varieties . Arabic
Arabic
has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Malta
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Arabian Peninsula
The ARABIAN PENINSULA, simplified ARABIA (Arabic : شبه الجزيرة العربية‎‎ _Shubh al-jazīra al-ʿarabiyya_, « Arabian island ») is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate . From a geological perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of Asia . It is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi). The Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries Yemen , Oman , Qatar , Bahrain , Kuwait , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates , and parts of Jordan and Iraq . The peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf to the northeast, the Levant to the north and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. The Arabian Peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Middle East and the Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas . Before the modern era, it was divided into four distinct regions: Hejaz , Najd , Southern Arabia ( Hadhramaut ) and Eastern Arabia . Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia
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North Africa
NORTH AFRICA is a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent . It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco in the west, to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs as the Maghreb (“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , as well as Libya , Egypt , and Sudan . The term “North Africa”, when commonly used in North Africa and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb and Libya. Egypt, due to its greater Middle Eastern associations, is typically viewed separately. The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity that is unique to this region. North west Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Egyptians
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Levant
Cyprus
Cyprus
Israel
Israel
Iraq
Iraq
Jordan
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Persian Gulf
The PERSIAN GULF (Persian : خلیج فارس‎, translit. _Xalij-e Fârs_, lit. 'Gulf of Fars'‎) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia . The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Oman ) through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran– Iraq War , in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers . It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War , the largely air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq 's invasion of Kuwait . The gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs , and abundant pearl oysters , but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills . The body of water is historically and internationally known as the "Persian Gulf". Some Arab governments refer to it as the "Arabian Gulf" (Arabic : الخليج العربي‎‎) or "The Gulf", but neither term is recognized internationally. The name "Gulf of Iran (Persian Gulf)" is used by the International Hydrographic Organization . The Persian Gulf is geologically very young, having been formed around 15,000 years ago
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First Language
A FIRST LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGE or MOTHER TONGUE (also known as FATHER TONGUE, ARTERIAL LANGUAGE or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period . In some countries, the term _native language_ or _mother tongue_ refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language. Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual . By contrast, a _second language _ is any language that one speaks other than one's first language. CONTENTS* 1 Terminology * 1.1 Mother tongue * 2 Significance * 3 Multilingualism * 3.1 Defining native language * 3.2 Defining "native speaker" * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY A lesson at Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary in North Carolina . The language immersion school, operated by the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians , teaches the same curriculum as other American primary schools , but Cherokee is the medium of instruction from preschool onward, and students learn it as a first language. Such schools have proven instrumental in the preservation and perpetuation of Cherokee
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Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ _al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá_ 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard _(al-)fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah_) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah_), the standard language in use today. MSA is based on classical Arabic, and differences between the two varieties of the language are directly related to modernizing and simplification, both in speaking and writing styles. Most Arabic
Arabic
speakers consider the two varieties to be two registers of one language, although the two registers can be referred to in Arabic
Arabic
as فصح ى العصر _fuṣḥá l-ʻaṣr_ (MSA) and فصح ى التراث _fuṣḥá t-turāth_ (CA)
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Classical Arabic
CLASSICAL ARABIC is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi . Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content; it is also used in modernized versions of Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries). While the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
are different from Classical Arabic, the morphology and syntax have remained basically unchanged (though MSA uses a subset of the syntactic structures available in CA). In the Arab world, little distinction is made between CA and MSA, and both are normally called _al-fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى‎) in Arabic, meaning 'the most eloquent ( Arabic
Arabic
language)'
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Grammatical Case
CASE is a special grammatical category of a noun , pronoun , adjective , participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase , clause , or sentence . In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners , participles, prepositions, numerals, articles and their modifiers take different inflected forms depending on what case they are in. As a language evolves, cases can merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek, the locative case merged with the dative), a phenomenon formally called syncretism . English has largely lost its case system, although personal pronouns still have three cases that are simplified forms of the nominative , accusative and genitive cases : subjective case (I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who, whoever), objective case (me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom, whomever) and possessive case (my, mine; your, yours; his; her, hers; its; our, ours; their, theirs; whose; whosever ). Forms such as _I_, _he_ and _we_ are used for the subject ("I kicked the ball"), whereas forms such as _me_, _him_ and _us_ are used for the object ("John kicked ME")
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