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Varian Associates
VARIAN ASSOCIATES was one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley . It was founded in 1948 by Russell H. and Sigurd F. Varian , William Webster Hansen , and Edward Ginzton to sell the klystron , the first tube which could amplify electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies, and other electromagnetic equipment. Varian Associates split into three companies in 1999. CONTENTS * 1 Incorporation and leadership * 2 Early projects and goals * 3 Location * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links INCORPORATION AND LEADERSHIPOn April 20, 1948, the Articles of Incorporation were filed, signed by nine directors: Edward Ginzton , who had worked with the Varian brothers since his days as a doctoral student; William Webster Hansen , Richard M. Leonard , an attorney; Leonard I
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Varian (other)
VARIAN may refer to: PEOPLE * Varian Fry (1907–1967), American journalist who helped thousands escape from Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II * Varian Lonamei (born 1962), Minister for Aviation, Communication and Meteorology, and member of the National Parliament of the Solomon Islands * Hal Varian (born 1947), Google's chief economist * Isaac L
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High-Tech
HIGH TECHNOLOGY, often abbreviated to HIGH TECH (adjective forms HIGH-TECHNOLOGY, HIGH-TECH or HI-TECH) is technology that is at the cutting edge : the most advanced technology available. As of the onset of the 21st century, products considered high tech are often those that incorporate advanced computer electronics . However, there is no specific class of technology that is high tech—the definition shifts and evolves over time—so products hyped as high-tech in the past may now be considered to be everyday or outdated technology. The opposite of high tech is low technology , referring to simple, often traditional or mechanical technology; for example, a calculator is a low-tech calculating device
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Silicon Valley
SILICON VALLEY is a nickname for the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area , in the northern part of the U.S. state of California
California
. The "valley" in its name refers to the Santa Clara Valley in Santa Clara County , which includes the city of San Jose and surrounding cities and towns, where the region has been traditionally centered. The region has expanded to include the southern half of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Mateo County , and southern portions of the East Bay in Alameda County . The word "silicon" originally referred to the large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers in the region, but the area is now the home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations , including the headquarters of 39 businesses in the Fortune 1000 , and thousands of startup companies
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Russell Varian
RUSSELL HARRISON VARIAN (April 24, 1898 – July 28, 1959) and SIGURD FERGUS VARIAN (May 4, 1901 – October 18, 1961) were brothers who founded one of the earliest high-tech companies in Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
. Born to theosophist parents who helped lead the utopian community of Halcyon, California
Halcyon, California
, they grew up in a home with multiple creative influences. The brothers showed an early interest in electricity, and after independently establishing careers in electronics and aviation they came together to invent the klystron , which became a critical component of radar , telecommunications and other microwave technologies. In 1948 they founded Varian Associates to market the klystron and other inventions; the company became the first to move into Stanford Industrial Park
Stanford Industrial Park
, the birthplace of Silicon Valley
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Sigurd Varian
RUSSELL HARRISON VARIAN (April 24, 1898 – July 28, 1959) and SIGURD FERGUS VARIAN (May 4, 1901 – October 18, 1961) were brothers who founded one of the earliest high-tech companies in Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
. Born to theosophist parents who helped lead the utopian community of Halcyon, California
Halcyon, California
, they grew up in a home with multiple creative influences. The brothers showed an early interest in electricity, and after independently establishing careers in electronics and aviation they came together to invent the klystron , which became a critical component of radar , telecommunications and other microwave technologies. In 1948 they founded Varian Associates to market the klystron and other inventions; the company became the first to move into Stanford Industrial Park
Stanford Industrial Park
, the birthplace of Silicon Valley
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William Webster Hansen
WILLIAM WEBSTER HANSEN (May 27, 1909 – May 23, 1949) was an American physicist and professor. He was one of the founders of the technology of microwave electronics . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Personal life * 3 Honors * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 Related Reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYHansen's father who was an immigrant from Denmark
Denmark
, was a hardware store owner in Fresno, California
Fresno, California
. He encouraged his son's early talent in mathematics and enthusiasm for electronics. He entering Stanford University
Stanford University
at the age of 16. he earned his B.A. in 1929, and his Ph.D. in 1933. Hansen went on to become interested in the problem of accelerating electrons for X-ray
X-ray
experiments, using oscillating fields, rather than large static voltages
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Edward Ginzton
DR EDWARD LEONARD GINZTON (December 27, 1915 – August 13, 1998) was a Ukrainian -American engineer . CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Family * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATIONGinzton completed his B.S.
B.S.
(1936) and M.S. (1937) in Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
and his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering
Electrical Engineering
from Stanford University
Stanford University
in 1941. CAREERAs a student at Stanford University, Ginzton worked with William Hansen and brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian . In 1941 he became a member of the Varian-Hansen group at the Sperry Gyroscope Company. Ginzton was appointed Assistant Professor in Physics
Physics
at Stanford University in 1945 and remained on the faculty until 1961
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Klystron
A KLYSTRON is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube , invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian , which is used as an amplifier for high radio frequencies , from UHF up into the microwave range. Low-power klystrons are used as oscillators in terrestrial microwave relay communications links, while high-power klystrons are used as output tubes in UHF television transmitters , satellite communication , and radar transmitters , and to generate the drive power for modern particle accelerators . In a klystron, an electron beam interacts with radio waves as it passes through resonant cavities , metal boxes along the length of a tube. The electron beam first passes through a cavity to which the input signal is applied. The energy of the electron beam amplifies the signal, and the amplified signal is taken from a cavity at the other end of the tube
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Electromagnetic Waves
In physics , ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EM RADIATION or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons ) of the electromagnetic field , propagating (radiating) through space carrying electromagnetic radiant energy . It includes radio waves , microwaves , infrared , (visible) light , ultraviolet , X- , and gamma radiation. Classically , electromagnetic radiation consists of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum . The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave . The wavefront of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a lightbulb) is a sphere . The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum could be characterized by either its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength
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Microwave
MICROWAVES are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (100 cm) and 300 GHz (0.1 cm). Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter wave ) bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz (300 and 3 mm). In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S , C , X , Ku , K , or Ka band , or by similar NATO or EU designations. The prefix _micro-_ in _microwave_ is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. It indicates that microwaves are "small", compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology, in that they have shorter wavelengths
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Richard M. Leonard
RICHARD MANNING LEONARD (October 22, 1908 – July 31, 1993) was an American rock climber , environmentalist and attorney . He served as president of the Sierra Club
Sierra Club
and the Save the Redwoods League , and was active in the Wilderness Society and the American Alpine Club . Leonard was born in Elyria , Ohio and graduated from the University of California, Berkeley and also received his law degree from the University of California
University of California
. On March 13, 1932, Leonard formed the Cragmont Climbing Club in Berkeley , California with Jules Eichorn
Jules Eichorn
, Bestor Robinson and several others. Leonard took a systematic, experimental approach to rock climbing safety and technology, repeatedly testing climber falls and belaying techniques under carefully controlled conditions. Steve Roper called Leonard "the father of California rock climbing"
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Leonard I. Schiff
LEONARD ISAAC SCHIFF was born in Fall River, Massachusetts
Fall River, Massachusetts
on March 29, 1915 and died on January 21, 1971 in Stanford, California
Stanford, California
. He was a physicist best known for his book Quantum Mechanics. CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Family * 4 Recognition * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATIONLeonard Schiff entered Ohio State University
Ohio State University
at age 14. Schiff received his B.S. -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> * ^ Bloch, Felix (1983), "LEONARD ISAAC SCHIFF", Biographical Memoirs, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press , 54, pp. 300–323, ISBN 0-309-03391-8 , retrieved 2009-09-22 * ^ A B http://histsoc.stanford.edu/pdfmem/SchiffL.pdf * ^ Seitz, Frederick (1950). "Review: L. I. Schiff, Quantum Mechanics". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 56 (2): 191–192. doi :10.1090/s0002-9904-1950-09377-x
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Stanford University
STANFORD UNIVERSITY (STANFORD; officially LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY , colloquially THE FARM) is a private research university in Stanford , California , adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco . Its 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km2) campus is one of the largest in the United States . Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in America. Due to its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley it is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. , who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a former Governor of California and U.S. Senator ; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon
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Russell And Sigurd Varian
RUSSELL HARRISON VARIAN (April 24, 1898 – July 28, 1959) and SIGURD FERGUS VARIAN (May 4, 1901 – October 18, 1961) were brothers who founded one of the earliest high-tech companies in Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
. Born to theosophist parents who helped lead the utopian community of Halcyon, California , they grew up in a home with multiple creative influences. The brothers showed an early interest in electricity, and after independently establishing careers in electronics and aviation they came together to invent the klystron , which became a critical component of radar , telecommunications and other microwave technologies. In 1948 they founded Varian Associates
Varian Associates
to market the klystron and other inventions; the company became the first to move into Stanford Industrial Park , the birthplace of Silicon Valley
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Sierra Club
The SIERRA CLUB is an environmental organization in the United States . It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California
California
, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir , who became its first president. Traditionally associated with the progressive movement , the club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world, and currently engages in lobbying politicians to promote green policies. In recent years, the club has gravitated toward green politics and especially toward bright green environmentalism . Recent focuses of the club include promoting sustainable energy , mitigating global warming , and opposing coal . The club is known for its political endorsements, which are often sought after by candidates in local elections; it generally supports liberal and progressive candidates in elections
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