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Varian Associates
VARIAN ASSOCIATES was one of the first high-tech companies in Silicon Valley . It was founded in 1948 by Russell H. and Sigurd F. Varian , William Webster Hansen , and Edward Ginzton to sell the klystron , the first tube which could amplify electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies, and other electromagnetic equipment. Varian Associates split into three companies in 1999. CONTENTS * 1 Incorporation and leadership * 2 Early projects and goals * 3 Location * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links INCORPORATION AND LEADERSHIPOn April 20, 1948, the Articles of Incorporation were filed, signed by nine directors: Edward Ginzton , who had worked with the Varian brothers since his days as a doctoral student; William Webster Hansen , Richard M. Leonard , an attorney; Leonard I
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Steve Jobs
STEVEN PAUL JOBS (/ˈdʒɒbz/ ; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur, businessman, inventor, and industrial designer. He was the chairman, and the chief executive officer (CEO), and a co-founder of Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
; CEO and majority shareholder of Pixar
Pixar
; a member of The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
's board of directors following its acquisition of Pixar; and founder, chairman, and CEO of NeXT
NeXT
. Jobs and Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak are widely recognized as pioneers of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s. Jobs was born in San Francisco
San Francisco
to parents who had to put him up for adoption at birth; he was raised in the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area during the 1960s. Jobs briefly attended Reed College in 1972 before dropping out
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Cold War
The COLD WAR was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states ) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States
United States
, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine , a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed . The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as proxy wars
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Palo Alto, California
April 23, 1894 NAMED FOR El Palo Alto GOVERNMENT • TYPE Council-Manager • BODY City council
City council
members: * Mayor Patrick Burt * Vice Mayor Gregory Scharff * Marc Berm
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Industry Week
This article CONTAINS CONTENT THAT IS WRITTEN LIKE AN ADVERTISEMENT . Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view . (August 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) IndustryWeek Magazine
Magazine
TYPE Business
Business
magazine FORMAT Paper and online magazine OWNER(S) Penton Media EDITOR Steve Minter FOUNDED 1970 LANGUAGE English HEADQUARTERS Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio
, USA CIRCULATION 181,951 ISSN 0039-0895 WEBSITE IndustryWeek.comINDUSTRYWEEK (IW) is an American monthly trade publication founded in 1882. CONTENTS * 1 Content * 2 History * 3 Programs * 4 References * 5 External links CONTENT IndustryWeek is a trade publication and web site owned by Penton Media
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Photon
A PHOTON is an elementary particle , the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light , and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual photons ). The photon has zero rest mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum . Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality , exhibiting properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself, and it can behave as a particle with definite and finite measurable position or momentum , though not both at the same time. The photon's wave and quanta qualities are two observable aspects of a single phenomenon, and cannot be described by any mechanical model; a representation of this dual property of light, which assumes certain points on the wavefront to be the seat of the energy, is not possible
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Radiation Therapy
RADIATION THERAPY or RADIOTHERAPY, often abbreviated RT, RTX, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation , generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator . Radiation
Radiation
therapy may be curative in a number of types of cancer if they are localized to one area of the body. It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy , to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer). Radiation
Radiation
therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy , and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers. The subspecialty of oncology concerned with radiotherapy is called RADIATION ONCOLOGY. Radiation
Radiation
therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth
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Atomic Bomb
A NUCLEAR WEAPON is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions , either fission (fission bomb ) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb ). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation . Since they are weapons of mass destruction , the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy
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Agilent Technologies
AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES is an American public research, development and manufacturing company established in 1999 as a spin-off from Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
. The resulting IPO of Agilent stock was the largest in the history of Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
at the time. The company provides analytical instruments , software , services and consumables for the entire laboratory workflow. Agilent focuses its products and services on six markets: food, environmental and forensics, pharmaceutical, diagnostics, chemical and energy, and research. From 1999 to 2014 the company also produced test and measurement equipment for electronics, this division was spun out to form Keysight
Keysight

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Congressional Record
The CONGRESSIONAL RECORD is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress
United States Congress
, published by the United States Government Publishing Office and issued when Congress is in session. Indexes are issued approximately every two weeks. At the end of a session of Congress, the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition. Statutory authorization for the Congressional Record
Congressional Record
is found in Chapter 9 of Title 44 of the United States Code. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OVERVIEWThe Congressional Record
Congressional Record
consists of four sections: the House section, the Senate section, the Extensions of Remarks, and, since the 1940s, the Daily Digest
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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The Bancroft Library
Coordinates : 37°52′20″N 122°15′32″W / 37.87226°N 122.25885°W / 37.87226; -122.25885 Bancroft Library, September 2010. The BANCROFT LIBRARY in the center of the Berkeley campus of the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
, is the university's primary special-collections library. It was acquired from its founder, Hubert Howe Bancroft , in 1905, with the proviso that it retain the name Bancroft Library
Bancroft Library
in perpetuity. The collection at that time consisted of 50,000 volumes of materials on the history of California and the North American West. It is the largest such collection in the world. The building the library is located in, the Doe Annex, was completed in 1950
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Bibcode
The BIBCODE (also known as the REFCODE) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references. CONTENTS * 1 Adoption * 2 Format * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References ADOPTIONThe Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System who coined and prefer the term "bibcode". FORMATThe code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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