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Vapor-compression Desalination
VAPOR-COMPRESSION DESALINATION (VC) refers to a distillation process where the evaporation of sea or saline water is obtained by the application of heat delivered by compressed vapor. OVERVIEWSince compression of the vapor increases both the pressure and temperature of the vapor, it is possible to use the latent heat rejected during condensation to generate additional vapor. The effect of compressing water vapor can be done by two methods. The first method utilizes an ejector system motivated by steam at manometric pressure from an external source in order to recycle vapor from the desalination process. The form is designated ejectocompression or thermocompression. Using the second method, water vapor is compressed by means of a mechanical device, electrically driven in most cases. This form is designated mechanical vapor compression (MVC). The MVC process comprises two different versions: vapor compression (VC) and vacuum vapor compression (VVC)
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Seawater Greenhouse
A SEAWATER GREENHOUSE is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy . The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used to humidify and cool the air, and second, it is evaporated by solar heating and distilled to produce fresh water . Finally, the remaining humidified air is expelled from the greenhouse and used to improve growing conditions for outdoor plants. The technology was introduced by British inventor Charlie Paton in the early 1990s and is being developed by his UK company Seawater Greenhouse
Greenhouse
Ltd. The more concentrated salt water may either be further evaporated for the production of salt and other elements, or discharged back to the sea. The seawater greenhouse is a response to the global water crisis and peak water
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Distillation
DISTILLATION is the process of separating the component or substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation . Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry , distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction . Commercially, distillation has many applications
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Water Recycling
RECLAIMED or RECYCLED WATER (also called WASTEWATER REUSE or WATER RECLAMATION) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes. Reuse may include irrigation of gardens and agricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater (i.e., groundwater recharge ). Reused water may also be directed toward fulfilling certain needs in residences (e.g. toilet flushing), businesses, and industry, and could even be treated to reach drinking water standards. This last option is called either "direct potable reuse" or "indirect potable" reuse, depending on the approach used. Colloquially, the term "toilet to tap" also refers to potable reuse. Reclaiming water for reuse applications instead of using freshwater supplies can be a water-saving measure
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Methane Hydrate
METHANE CLATHRATE (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called METHANE HYDRATE, HYDROMETHANE, METHANE ICE, FIRE ICE, NATURAL GAS HYDRATE, or GAS HYDRATE, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate ) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice . Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System
Solar System
, where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth
Earth
. Methane
Methane
clathrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and they occur in deep sedimentary structures and form outcrops on the ocean floor
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Multiple-effect Humidification
MULTIPLE-EFFECT HUMIDIFICATION (MEH) is a method used for thermal desalination of sea water . It uses multiple evaporation –condensation cycles at separate temperature levels to minimize the total energy consumption of solar humidification processes. REFERENCES * ^ Müller-Holst, Hendrik (2002). "Multiple Effect Humidification Dehumidification at ambient pressure: Optimisation and applications" (in German and English). Technical University of Munich. Retrieved October 25, 2012. This water supply –related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Sea Water
SEAWATER, or SALT WATER, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM) This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+ ) and chloride (Cl− ) ions ). Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater
Seawater
is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases. At typical salinity, it freezes at about −2 °C (28 °F). The coldest seawater ever recorded (in a liquid state) was in 2010, in a stream under an Antarctic
Antarctic
glacier , and measured −2.6 °C (27.3 °F). Seawater
Seawater
pH is typically limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4
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Saline Water
SALINE WATER (more commonly known as SALT WATER) is water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl ). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt
Salt
concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1–0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3–1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1–3.5%). Seawater
Seawater
has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At 20 °C one milliliter of water can dissolve about 0.357 grams of salt; a concentration of 26.3%
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Vapor-compression Desalination
VAPOR-COMPRESSION DESALINATION (VC) refers to a distillation process where the evaporation of sea or saline water is obtained by the application of heat delivered by compressed vapor. OVERVIEWSince compression of the vapor increases both the pressure and temperature of the vapor, it is possible to use the latent heat rejected during condensation to generate additional vapor. The effect of compressing water vapor can be done by two methods. The first method utilizes an ejector system motivated by steam at manometric pressure from an external source in order to recycle vapor from the desalination process. The form is designated ejectocompression or thermocompression. Using the second method, water vapor is compressed by means of a mechanical device, electrically driven in most cases. This form is designated mechanical vapor compression (MVC). The MVC process comprises two different versions: vapor compression (VC) and vacuum vapor compression (VVC)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Vapor-compression Evaporation
VAPOR-COMPRESSION EVAPORATION is the evaporation method by which a blower , compressor or jet ejector is used to compress , and thus, increase the pressure of the vapor produced. Since the pressure increase of the vapor also generates an increase in the condensation temperature, the same vapor can serve as the heating medium for its "mother" liquid or solution being concentrated, from which the vapor was generated to begin with. If no compression was provided, the vapor would be at the same temperature as the boiling liquid/solution, and no heat transfer could take place. It is also sometimes called vapor compression distillation (VCD). If compression is performed by a mechanically driven compressor or blower, this evaporation process is usually referred to as MVR (mechanical vapor recompression). In case of compression performed by high pressure motive steam ejectors , the process is usually called THERMOCOMPRESSION or STEAM COMPRESSION
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Latent Heat
LATENT HEAT is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system , during a constant-temperature process - usually a first-order phase transition . Latent heat
Latent heat
can be understood as heat energy in hidden form which is supplied or extracted to change the state of a substance without changing its temperature. Examples are latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization involved in phase changes , i.e. a substance condensing or vaporizing at a specified temperature and pressure. The term was introduced around 1762 by British chemist Joseph Black . It is derived from the Latin latere (to lie hidden). Black used the term in the context of calorimetry where a heat transfer caused a volume change while the thermodynamic system's temperature was constant. In contrast to latent heat, sensible heat involves an energy transfer that results in a temperature change of the system
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Solar Humidification
The SOLAR HUMIDIFICATION–DEHUMIDIFICATION METHOD (HDH) is a thermal water desalination method. It is based on evaporation of sea water or brackish water and subsequent condensation of the generated humid air, mostly at ambient pressure. This process mimics the natural water cycle , but over a much shorter time frame. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Tests * 3 References * 4 External links OVERVIEWThe simplest configuration is implemented in the solar still , evaporating the sea water inside a glass covered box and condensing the water vapor on the lower side of the glass cover. More sophisticated designs separate the solar heat gain section from the evaporation-condensation chamber. An optimized design comprises separated evaporation and condensation sections
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Solar Desalination
SOLAR DESALINATION is a technique to desalinate water using SOLAR ENERGY . There are two basic methods of achieving DESALINATION using this technique; direct and indirect. CONTENTS * 1 Methods * 2 History * 3 Types of solar desalination * 4 Multi-stage flash distillation
Multi-stage flash distillation
(MSF) * 4.1 Towered desalination plant built in Pakistan * 4.2 Solar humidification–dehumidification * 5 Problems with thermal systems * 6 Solutions for thermal systems * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links METHODSIn the direct method, a solar collector is coupled with a distilling mechanism and the process is carried out in one simple cycle. SOLAR STILLS of this type are described in survival guides, provided in marine survival kits, and employed in many small desalination and distillation plants
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Membrane Technology
MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY covers all engineering approaches for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes . In general, mechanical separation processes for separating gaseous or liquid streams use membrane technology. CONTENTS * 1 Applications * 2 Mass transfer * 2.1 Solution-diffusion model * 2.2 Hydrodynamic model * 3 Membrane operations * 4 Membrane shapes and flow geometries * 5 Membrane performance and governing equations * 6 Membrane separation processes * 7 Pore size and selectivity * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References APPLICATIONS Ultrafiltration for a swimming pool Venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation scheme Membrane separation processes operate without heating and therefore use less energy than conventional thermal separation processes such as distillation , sublimation or crystallization
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Electrodialysis Reversal
ELECTRODIALYSIS REVERSAL (EDR) is an electrodialysis reversal water desalination membrane process that has been commercially used since the early 1960s. An electric current migrates dissolved salt ions , including fluorides , nitrates and sulfates , through an electrodialysis stack consisting of alternating layers of cationic and anionic ion exchange membranes. Periodically, the direction of ion flow is reversed by reversing the polarity of the applied electric current. SEE ALSO * Reversed electrodialysis (RED) * Osmotic power
Osmotic power
REFERENCES * ^ A B Katz, William E. (January 1979). "The electrodialysis reversal (EDR) process". Desalination. 28 (1): 31–40. doi :10.1016/S0011-9164(00)88124-2 . Retrieved 2015
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