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Vanilla
Vanilla
Vanilla
is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod".[1] Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlilxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.[2] Pollination
Pollination
is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived
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Melipona
Some 40, see textMelipona is a genus of stingless bees, widespread in warm areas of the Neotropics, from Sinaloa and Tamaulipas (México) to Tucumán and Misiones (Argentina). At least 40 species are known. The largest producer of honey from Melipona bees in Mexico is in the state of Yucatán where bees are studied at an interactive park called "Bee Planet" which is within the Cuxtal Ecological Reserve.[1] Several species are kept for honey production, such as in Brazil, where some are well-known enough to have common names. Melipona honey has long been used by humans and now is of minor commercial importance
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Lignin
Lignin
Lignin
is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae.[1] Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.[2]Contents1 History 2 Composition and structure 3 Biological function 4 Economic significance 5 Biosynthesis 6 Biodegradation6.1 Lignin
Lignin
degradation by fungi 6.2 Lignin
Lignin
degradation by bacteria7 Pyrolysis 8 Chemical analysis 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] Lignin
Lignin
was first mentioned in 1813 by the Swiss botanist A. P
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Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
Tenochtitlan
(Spanish: Tenochtitlan, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmexiko tenotʃˈtitlan] ( listen)), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (Classical Nahuatl: Mēxihco-Tenōchtitlan [meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan]), was a large Mexica
Mexica
city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City. Founded on June 20, 1325, the city was built on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco
Lake Texcoco
in the Valley of Mexico. The city was the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire
in the 15th century[1] until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
Americas. It subsequently became a cabecera of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
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Mauritius
Coordinates: 20°12′S 57°30′E / 20.2°S 57.5°E / -20.2; 57.5Republic of Mauritius République de Maurice  (French) Repiblik Moris  ( Mauritian
Mauritian
creole)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Stella Clavisque Maris Indici" (Latin) French: L’étoile et la clé de l’océan Indien "Star and Key of the Indian Ocean"Anthem: MotherlandIslands of the Republic of Mauritius <
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Food And Agriculture Organisation
The Food and Agriculture
Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations
United Nations
(FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialised agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all. Its Latin
Latin
motto, fiat panis, translates as "let there be bread"
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Tropical Cyclone
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane (/ˈhʌrɪkən, -keɪn/),[1][2][3] typhoon (/taɪˈfuːn/), tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.[4] A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; while in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as “tropical cyclones” or “severe cyclonic storms”.[4] “Tropical” refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas
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Cartel
A 'cartel' is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices. Cartels typically control selling prices, but some are organized to control the prices of purchased inputs. Antitrust laws attempt to deter or forbid cartels. A single entity that holds a monopoly by this definition cannot be a cartel, though it may be guilty of abusing said monopoly in other ways. Cartels usually occur in oligopolies, where there are a small number of sellers and usually involve homogeneous products
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Cyclone Enawo
Intense Tropical Cyclone Enawo
Cyclone Enawo
was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Madagascar
Madagascar
since Gafilo in 2004, which killed at least 81 people of the country in March 2017.[1] Forming as a moderate tropical storm on 3 March, Enawo initially drifted and intensified slowly. It strengthened into a tropical cyclone on 5 March and further an intense tropical cyclone on 6 March. Enawo made landfall over Sava Region on 7 March just after reaching peak intensity, and it emerged back into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
as a post-tropical depression late on 9 March
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Old World
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
( Afro-Eurasia
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Aromatherapy
Aromatherapy
Aromatherapy
uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds for improving psychological or physical well-being.[1] It can be offered as a complementary therapy or as a form of alternative medicine
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Pollination
Pollination
Pollination
is an agent’s transferring pollen from a gymnosperm’s sporophyll to an ovule’s micropyle or an agent’s transferring pollen from an angiosperm’s anther to a carpel’s stigma [2]. Pollinating agents are animals, water, and wind and even plants themselves when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Pollination
Pollination
often occurs within a species. When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant-breeding work. Pollination
Pollination
is a major obligate process in seed production. In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary
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Hermaphroditic
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.[1] Many taxonomic groups of animals (mostly invertebrates) do not have separate sexes.[2] In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which either partner can act as the "female" or "male". For example, the great majority of tunicates, pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is also found in some fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Most plants are also hermaphrodites. Historically, the term hermaphrodite has also been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species, especially human beings
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Anther
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium.[1]Contents1 Morphology and terminology 2 Etymology 3 Variation in morphology 4 Pollen
Pollen
production 5 Sexual reproduction in plants 6 Descriptive terms 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksMorphology and terminology[edit] A stamen typically consists of a stalk called the filament and an anther which contains microsporangia. Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the connective. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte. The stamens in a flower are collectively called the androecium. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Pistil
Gynoecium
Gynoecium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl of (one or more) pistils in a flower and is typically surrounded by the pollen-producing reproductive organs, the stamens, collectively called the androecium. The gynoecium is often referred to as the "female" portion of the flower, although rather than directly producing female gametes (i.e. egg cells), the gynoecium produces megaspores, each of which develops into a female gametophyte which then produces egg cells. The term gynoecium is also used by botanists to refer to a cluster of archegonia and any associated modified leaves or stems present on a gametophyte shoot in mosses, liverworts and hornworts
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Self-pollination
Self-pollination
Self-pollination
is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms). There are two types of self-pollination: in autogamy, pollen is transferred to the stigma of the same flower; in geitonogamy, pollen is transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on the same flowering plant, or from microsporangium to ovule within a single (monoecious) gymnosperm. Some plants have mechanisms that ensure autogamy, such as flowers that do not open (cleistogamy), or stamens that move to come into contact with the stigma
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