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Valenciennes FC
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. VALENCIENNES (French pronunciation: ​ ; Dutch : Valencijn, Latin : Valentianae) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. It lies on the Scheldt (French : Escaut) river. Although the city and region experienced a steady population decline between 1975 and 1990, it has since rebounded. The 1999 census recorded that the population of the commune of Valenciennes
Valenciennes
was 41,278, and that of the metropolitan area was 399,677
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Ottonian
The OTTONIAN DYNASTY (German : Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I . It is also known as the SAXON DYNASTY after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony . The family itself is also sometimes known as the LIUDOLFINGS (Liudolfinger), after its earliest known member Count Liudolf (d. 866) and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers were successors of the Germanic king Conrad I who was the only Germanic king to rule in East Francia after the Carolingian dynasty and before this dynasty
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Empire Of The Franks
FRANCIA or FRANKIA, also called the KINGDOM OF THE FRANKS ( Latin
Latin
: Regnum Francorum), FRANKISH KINGDOM, FRANKISH EMPIRE, FRANKISH REALM or occasionally FRANKLAND, was a Barbarian kingdom inhabited and ruled by the Franks
Franks
, a confederation of West Germanic tribes
West Germanic tribes
, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The kingdom was founded by Clovis I
Clovis I
, crowned first King of the Franks
Franks
in 496. Under the nearly continuous campaigns of Pepin of Herstal , Charles Martel
Charles Martel
, Pepin the Short
Pepin the Short
, Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, and Louis the Pious —father, son, grandson, great-grandson and great-great-grandson—the greatest expansion of the Frankish empire was secured by the early 9th century
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Marches
A MARCH or MARK was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland , as opposed to a notional "heartland". More specifically, a march was a border between realms, and/or a neutral/buffer zone under joint control of two states, in which different laws might apply. In both of these senses, marches served a political purpose, such as providing warning of military incursions, or regulating cross-border trade, or both. Just as counties were traditionally ruled by counts , marches gave rise to titles such as: marquess (masculine) or marchioness (feminine) in England, marquis (masc.) or marquise (fem.) in France and Scotland, margrave (Markgraf i.e. "march count"; masc.) or margravine (Markgräfin i.e. "march countess", fem.) in Germany, and corresponding titles in other European states
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Famine
A FAMINE is a widespread scarcity of food , caused by several factors including crop failure , population imbalance , or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition , starvation , epidemic , and increased mortality . Every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was generally Eastern Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
that suffered the most deaths from famine. The numbers dying from famine began to fall sharply from the 1970s. Some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa
Africa
has been the most affected continent in the world
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Bubonic Plague
BUBONIC PLAGUE is one of three types of bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis
Yersinia pestis
. One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu like symptoms develop. These include fever , headaches , and vomiting. Swollen and painful lymph nodes occur in the area closest to where the bacteria entered the skin. Occasionally the swollen lymph nodes may break open. The three types of plague are the result of the route of infection: bubonic plague, septicemic plague , and pneumonic plague . Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals . It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague infected animal. In the bubonic form of plague, the bacteria enter through the skin through a flea bite and travel via the lymphatic vessels to a lymph node , causing it to swell
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Holy Roman Empire
The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ( Latin
Latin
: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German : Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany
Kingdom of Germany
, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
, the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , and numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as Emperor , reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Lotharingia
LOTHARINGIA (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
, comprising the present-day Netherlands
Netherlands
, Belgium
Belgium
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
(Germany), Saarland
Saarland
(Germany), and Lorraine (France). It was named after King Lothair II who received this territory after the kingdom of Middle Francia of his father Lothair I was divided among his sons in 855. Lotharingia
Lotharingia
was born out of the tripartite division in 855 of the kingdom of Middle Francia , which itself was formed after the threefold division of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
by the Treaty of Verdun of 843
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Treaty Of Verdun
The TREATY OF VERDUN, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious , who was the son of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
. The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse , ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Provisions * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links BACKGROUNDFollowing Charlemagne's death, Louis was made ruler of the Carolingian empire . During his reign, he divided the empire so that each of his sons could rule over their own kingdom under the greater rule of their father. Lothair I
Lothair I
was given the title of emperor but because of several re-divisions by his father and the resulting revolts, he became much less powerful
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Neustria
NEUSTRIA (/ˈnuːstriə, ˈnjuː-/ ) or NEUSTRASIA (meaning "new land" in contrast to Austrasia
Austrasia
) was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks
Franks
that was created in 511 upon the division of the Merovingian
Merovingian
kingdom of Clovis I
Clovis I
to his four sons following his death. Neustria
Neustria
was made up of the regions between Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and the English Channel , approximately the north of present-day France
France
, with Paris and Soissons
Soissons
as its main cities
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Austrasia
AUSTRASIA was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian
Merovingian
Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries. It was centred on the Meuse , Middle Rhine and the Moselle
Moselle
rivers, and was the original territory of the Ripuarian Frankish tribes prior to the unification of all Franks
Franks
under the Salian Frank Clovis I
Clovis I
. In AD 567, it became a separate kingdom within the Frankish kingdom and was ruled by Sigebert I
Sigebert I
. In the 7th and 8th century it was the powerbase from which the Carolingians
Carolingians
, originally mayors of the palace of Austrasia, took over the rule of all Franks
Franks
from the Salian Merovingians
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Normans
The NORMANS (Norman : Normaunds; French : Normands; Latin
Latin
: Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy , a region in France
France
. They were descended from Norse ("Norman" comes from "Norseman" ) Vikings
Vikings
(Old English wicingas—"pirates" ) from Denmark
Denmark
, Iceland
Iceland
and Norway
Norway
who, under their leader Rollo , agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia . Through generations of assimilation and mixing with the native Frankish and Gallo-Roman populations, their descendants gradually adopted the Carolingian -based cultures of West Francia. The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans
Normans
emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, and it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries
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County Of Hainaut
The COUNTY OF HAINAUT (French : Comté de Hainaut, Dutch : Graafschap Henegouwen; German : Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings HAINAULT and HEYNOWES, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, with its capital at Mons
Mons
(Dutch : Bergen). The name comes from the river Haine (Dutch: Hene, German: Henne). Besides Mons, it included the cities of Cambrai
Cambrai
(Kamerijk) and Charleroi
Charleroi
. It consisted of what is now the Belgian province of Hainaut and the southern part of the French département of Nord . Originally a gau of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
, Hainaut was briefly a part of West Francia
Francia
(911–25) before becoming definitively attached to Germany . The county was divided in 958 and only emerged in its more or less final form in 1071
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Dominican Order
The ORDER OF PREACHERS ( Latin
Latin
: Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation O.P.), also known as the DOMINICAN ORDER, is a mendicant Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France
France
, approved by Pope Honorius III via the papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters O.P. after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars , nuns , active sisters, and affiliated lay or secular Dominicans (formerly known as tertiaries , though recently there has been a growing number of associates who are unrelated to the tertiaries )
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Duchy Of Burgundy
The DUCHY OF BURGUNDY (Latin : Ducatus Burgundiae, French : Duché de Bourgogne, Dutch : Hertogdom Bourgondië) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors and prestigious patrimony of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians
Kingdom of the Burgundians
, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire . Upon the 9th century partitions, the French remnants of the Burgundian kingdom were demoted to a ducal rank by King Robert II of France
France
in 1004 and in 1032 awarded to his younger son Robert via Salic law – other portions had passed to the Imperial Kingdom of Arles
Kingdom of Arles
and the County of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Franche-Comté)
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Albert I, Duke Of Bavaria
DUKE ALBERT I (German : Albrecht; 25 July 1336, Munich
Munich
– 13 December 1404, The Hague
The Hague
) KG , was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland , Hainaut , and Zeeland
Zeeland
in the Low Countries
Low Countries
. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing , his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Family and children * 3 Ancestors * 4 See also BIOGRAPHY Silver groat or 'voetdrager', struck under Albert of Bavaria. Mintplace: Dordrecht
Dordrecht
1389-1404. Albert was the third son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor from his second wife Emp