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Vacuum Fluorescent Display
A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a display device used commonly on consumer electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders, car radios, and microwave ovens. A VFD operates on the principle of cathodoluminescence, roughly similar to a cathode ray tube, but operating at much lower voltages. Each tube in a VFD has a phosphor coated anode that is bombarded by electrons emitted from the cathode filament.[1] In fact, each tube in VFD is a triode vacuum tube because it also has a mesh control grid.[2] Unlike liquid crystal displays, a VFD emits a very bright light with high contrast and can support display elements of various colors. Standard illumination figures for VFDs are around 640 cd/m2 with high-brightness VFDs operating at 4,000 cd/m2, and experimental units as high as 35,000 cd/m2 depending on the drive voltage and its timing.[2] The choice of color (which determines the nature of the phosphor) and display brightness significantly affect the lifetime of the tub
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Videocassette Recorder
A videocassette recorder, VCR, or video recorder is an electromechanical device that records analog audio and analog video from broadcast television or other source on a removable, magnetic tape videocassette, and can play back the recording. Use of a VCR to record a television program to play back at a more convenient time is commonly referred to as timeshifting. VCRs can also play back prerecorded tapes. In the 1980s and 1990s, prerecorded videotapes were widely available for purchase and rental, and blank tapes were sold to make recordings. Most domestic VCRs are equipped with a television broadcast receiver (tuner) for TV reception, and a programmable clock (timer) for unattended recording of a television channel from a start time to an end time specified by the user. These features began as simple mechanical counter-based single-event timers, but were later replaced by more flexible multiple-event digital clock timers
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Dashboard
A dashboard (also called dash, instrument panel (IP), or fascia) is a control panel located directly ahead of a vehicle's driver, displaying instrumentation and controls for the vehicle's operation.Contents1 Etymology 2 Dashboard
Dashboard
features 3 Padding and safety 4 Fashion in instrumentation 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit]Horse-drawn carriage dashboardOriginally, the word dashboard applied to a barrier of wood or leather fixed at the front of a horse-drawn carriage or sleigh to protect the driver from mud or other debris "dashed up" (thr
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Fluorescence
Fluorescence
Fluorescence
is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light
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Multiplexed Display
Multiplexed displays are electronic display devices where the entire display is not driven at one time. Instead, sub-units of the display (typically, rows or columns for a dot matrix display or individual characters for a character oriented display, occasionally individual display elements) are multiplexed, that is, driven one at a time, but the electronics and the persistence of vision combine to make the viewer believe the entire display is continuously active. A multiplexed display has several advantages compared to a non-multiplexed display:fewer wires (often, far fewer wires) are needed simpler driving electronics can be used both lead to reduced cost reduced power consumptionMultiplexed displays can be divided into two broad categories:character-oriented displays pixel-oriented displaysContents1 Character-oriented displays 2 Pixel-oriented displays 3 "Break up" 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacter-oriented displays[edit] Most
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Microprocessor
A microprocessor is a computer processor which incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC),[1] or at most a few integrated circuits.[2] The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital-integrated circuit which accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. The integration of a whole CPU
CPU
onto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power, increasing efficiency. Integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
processors are produced in large numbers by highly automated processes resulting in a low per unit cost
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Persistence Of Vision
Persistence of vision
Persistence of vision
refers to the optical illusion that occurs when visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays of light proceeding from it have ceased to enter the eye.[2] The illusion has also been described as "retinal persistence",[3] "persistence of impressions"[4], simply "persistence" and other variations. This has been believed to be the explanation for motion perception in cinema and animated films, but this theory has long been discarded by scientists.
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Color Filter
A color gel or color filter (British spelling: colour gel or colour filter), also known as lighting gel or simply gel, is a transparent colored material that is used in theater, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to color light and for color correction.[1] Modern gels are thin sheets of polycarbonate or polyester, placed in front of a lighting fixture in the path of the beam. Gels have a limited life, especially in saturated colors (lower light transmission) and shorter wavelength (blues). The color will fade or even melt, depending upon the energy absorption of the color, and the sheet will have to be replaced. In permanent installations and some theatrical uses, colored glass filters or dichroic filters are being used. The main drawbacks are additional expense and a more limited selection.Contents1 History 2 Colors 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Colorfulness
Colorfulness, chroma and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity
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Watt
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power. In the International System of Units (SI) it is defined as a derived unit of 1 joule per second,[1] and is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer
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Alternating Current
Alternating current
Alternating current
(AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current
Alternating current
is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[1][2] The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves
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Automotive Industry In The United States
The automotive industry in the United States began in the 1890s and, as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass-production, rapidly evolved into the largest in the world. However, the United States was overtaken as the largest automobile producer by Japan in the 1980s, and subsequently by China in 2008. The U.S. is currently second among the largest manufacturer in the world by volume, with approximately 8-10 million manufactured annually. Notable exceptions were 5.7 million automobiles manufactured in 2009 (due to crisis), and peak production levels of 13-15 million units during the 1970s and early 2000s.[1][2][3] The motor vehicle industry began with hundreds of manufacturers, but by the end of the 1920s it was dominated by three large companies: General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler, all based in Metro Detroit. After the Great Depression
Great Depression
and World War II, these companies continued to prosper, and the U.S
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Subaru
Coordinates: 36°17′51″N 139°22′05″E / 36.2975685°N 139.368058°E / 36.2975685; 139.368058SubaruConfidence in Motion Subaru
Subaru
corporate headquarters buildingNative nameスバルIndustry Automobile
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Electronic Game
An electronic game is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play. Video game
Video game
is the most common form today, and for this reason the two terms are often mistakenly used synonymously. Other common forms of electronic game include such products as handheld electronic games, standalone systems (e.g. pinball, slot machines, or electro-mechanical arcade games), and exclusively non-visual products (e.g
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Electron
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e− or β−, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.[8] Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family,[9] and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.[1] The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton.[10] Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.[9] Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light
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Fresnel Lens
A Fresnel lens
Fresnel lens
(/freɪˈnɛl/ fray-NEL or /ˈfrɛznəl/ FREZ-nəl) is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel
Augustin-Jean Fresnel
for lighthouses.[1] The design allows the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length without the mass and volume of material that would be required by a lens of conventional design. A Fresnel lens
Fresnel lens
can be made much thinner than a comparable conventional lens, in some cases taking the form of a flat sheet
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