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Vézelay Abbey
VéZELAY ABBEY (French : Abbaye Sainte-Marie-Madeleine de Vézelay) was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne department in northern Burgundy , France
France
. The Benedictine abbey church, now the Basilica
Basilica
of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine (Saint Mary Magdalene ), with its complicated program of imagery in sculpted capitals and portals, is one of the outstanding masterpieces of Burgundian Romanesque art and architecture . Sacked by the Huguenots in 1569, the building suffered neglect in the 17th and the 18th centuries and some further damage during the period of the French Revolution . The church and hill at Vézelay were added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites in 1979. Relics of Mary Magdalene can be seen inside the Basilica. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Interpretation of the tympanum * 2.1 Lintel * 2.2 Comparison with other contemporary portals * 2.3 Lower compartments * 2.4 Upper compartments * 2.5 Central portal * 3 Alignment with the sun * 4 Notes * 5 External links HISTORYThe Benedictine abbey of Vézelay was founded, as many abbeys were, on land that had been a late Roman villa , of Vercellus (Vercelle becoming Vézelay)
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. More specifically, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is an already classified landmark, which by way of being unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable piece is of special cultural or physical significance (such as either due to hosting an ancient ruins or some historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) and symbolizes a remarkable footprint of extreme human endeavour often coupled with some act of indisputable accomplishment of humanity which then serves as a surviving evidence of its intellectual existence on the planet
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Table Of World Heritage Sites By Country
HERITAGE may refer to: * History , "heritage" refers to events or processes that have a special meaning in group memory * National heritage site , a site having a value that has been registered by a governmental agency as being of national importance to the history of that nation * Historic site an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their historical importance* Cultural heritage , the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society: man-made heritage * World Heritage Site , As a certified by UNESCO * List of des
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Vézelay
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. VéZELAY (French: ) is a commune in the Yonne department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in north-central France. It is a defendable hill town famous for Vézelay Abbey . The town and the famous 11th century Romanesque Basilica of St Magdalene are designated UNESCO World Heritage sites . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient history * 1.2 Middle Ages * 1.3 The abbey of Vézelay
Vézelay
* 1.4 Decline of the Abbey * 1.5 Wars of religion * 2 Wine * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Vézelay Abbey Vézelay's hilltop location has made it an obvious site for a town since ancient times. In the 9th century the Benedictines were given land to build a monastery during the reign of Charles the Bald . According to legend, not long before the end of the first millennium a monk named Baudillon brought relics (bones) of Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
to Vézelay
Vézelay
from Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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World Heritage Committee
The WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites . It decides about inscriptions on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 state parties that are elected by the GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF STATES PARTIES for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is for six years, however many states parties choose voluntarily to be Members of the Committee for only four years, in order to give other states' parties an opportunity to be on the committee. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily decided to reduce their period of term of office from six to four years. CONTENTS * 1 Sessions * 2 Members * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SESSIONSThe World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
meets once a year to discuss the management of existing World Heritage Sites, and accept the nominations from countries
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Order Of St. Benedict
The ORDER OF SAINT BENEDICT (OSB; Latin
Latin
: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known – in reference to the colour of its members' habits – as the BLACK MONKS, is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict
Rule of Saint Benedict
. Each community (monastery , priory or abbey ) within the order maintains its own autonomy, while the order itself represents their mutual interests. The terms "Order of Saint Benedict" and "Benedictine Order" are, however, also used to refer to all Benedictine communities collectively, sometimes giving the incorrect impression that there exists a generalate or motherhouse with jurisdiction over them. Internationally, the order is governed by the Benedictine Confederation , a body, established in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII 's Brief Summum semper, whose head is known as the Abbot
Abbot
Primate . Individuals whose communities are members of the order generally add the initials "OSB" after their names
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Cluniac
The CLUNIAC REFORMS (also called the BENEDICTINE REFORM) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor. The movement began within the Benedictine order at Cluny
Cluny
, founded in 910 by William I, Duke of Aquitaine (875-918).The reforms were largely carried out by Saint Odo (c. 878 – 942) and spread throughout France ( Burgundy
Burgundy
, Provence
Provence
, Auvergne , Poitou
Poitou
), into England (the English Benedictine Reform ), and through much of Italy
Italy
and Spain
Spain
. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Cluny
Cluny
Abbey * 3 Result * 3.1 The Cistercian order * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BACKGROUNDIn the early 10th century, Western monasticism, which had flourished several centuries earlier with St Benedict of Nursia , was experiencing a severe decline due to unstable political and social conditions resulting from the nearly continuous Viking raids, widespread poverty and, especially, the dependence of abbeys on the local nobles who controlled all that belonged to the territories under their jurisdiction
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Yonne
YONNE (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a French department named after the river Yonne
Yonne
. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de- France
France
. It was created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Its prefecture (capital) is Auxerre and its postcode number is 89. It is the fourth most populous department in the region with a population of about 342,000 (2012), and an average annual increase over the last few years of 0.41% per year. The biggest city is Auxerre , the capital, with a population of 35,000 in the city and roughly 43,000 in the urban area centred on it. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Economy * 4 Politics * 5 Tourism * 6 References * 6.1 Internal links * 7 External links HISTORYThe first evidence of occupation in this area is found in the Grottes d'Arcy-sur-Cure where paintings have been found dating back 28,000 years. The Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of that time also left behind numerous flint artefacts, but the area is believed to have been occupied for about 200,000 years. By 4000 BC, a wave of Neolithics arrived from the Danube region of eastern Europe building substantial wooden houses and introducing pottery decorated with the characteristics of the Linear Pottery culture
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Bourgogne
BOURGOGNE-FRANCHE-COMTé (French pronunciation: ​ , sometimes abbreviated BFC; meaning Burgundy–Free County) is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Burgundy
Burgundy
and Franche-Comté . The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015 . The region covers an area of 47,784 km2 (18,450 sq mi), and has a population of 2,816,814. CONTENTS * 1 Toponymy * 2 History * 2.1 Middle Ages * 2.2 Modern times * 3 Geography * 4 Major communities * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links TOPONYMYThe text of the territorial reform law gives interim names for most of the merged regions, combining the names of their constituent regions separated by hyphens . Permanent names would be proposed by the new regional councils and confirmed by the Conseil d\'État by 1 October 2016. Hence the interim name of the new administrative region is composed of the names of former administrative regions of Bourgogne and Franche-Comté . The region chose to retain its interim name as its permanent name, a decision made official by the Conseil d'État on 28 September 2016. The merger represents a historic reunification of the Duchy of Burgundy
Burgundy
(Duché de Bourgogne) and the Free County of Burgundy (Franche Comté de Bourgogne), for the first time since they were divided in 1477
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille , Lyon , Lille , Nice , Toulouse and Bordeaux . During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls , a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome , which held Gaul until 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region and formed the Kingdom of France
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Saint Mary Magdalene
Western: alabaster box of ointment Eastern: container of ointment (as a myrrhbearer), or holding a red egg (symbol of the resurrection); embracing the feet of Christ after the Resurrection
Resurrection
PATRONAGE Apothecaries ; Kawit, Cavite ; Atrani, Italy ; Casamicciola Terme, Ischia ; contemplative life; converts ; glove makers ; hairdressers; penitent sinners ; people ridiculed for their piety ; perfumeries; pharmacists ; sexual temptation ; tanners ; womenMARY MAGDALENE (/ˈmæɡdələn/ Hebrew
Hebrew
: מרים המגדלית‎‎, original Biblical Greek : Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή), literally translated as MARY THE MAGDALENE or MARY OF MAGDALA or occasionally THE MAGDALENE, was a Jewish
Jewish
woman who, according to texts included in the New Testament
New Testament
, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers. She is said to have witnessed Jesus\' crucifixion and resurrection . Within the four Gospels she is named at least 12 times, more than most of the apostles. The Gospel of Luke says seven demons had gone out of her, and the longer ending of Mark says Jesus
Jesus
had cast seven demons out of her. She is most prominent in the narrative of the crucifixion of Jesus, at which she was present, and the witness in all four gospels of the empty tomb, which is central to narratives of Jesus' resurrection
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Romanesque Art
ROMANESQUE ART is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 13th century, or later, depending on region. The preceding period is known as the Pre-Romanesque period. The term was invented by 19th-century art historians, especially for Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
, which retained many basic features of Roman architectural style – most notably round-headed arches, but also barrel vaults , apses , and acanthus -leaf decoration – but had also developed many very different characteristics. In Southern France, Spain
Spain
and Italy
Italy
there was an architectural continuity with the Late Antique, but the Romanesque style was the first style to spread across the whole of Catholic Europe, from Sicily to Scandinavia. Romanesque art was also greatly influenced by Byzantine art , especially in painting, and by the anti-classical energy of the decoration of the Insular art
Insular art
of the British Isles
British Isles
. From these elements was forged a highly innovative and coherent style
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Romanesque Architecture
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches . There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century, this later date being the most commonly held. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style , marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture . The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture . Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars , groin vaults , large towers and decorative arcading . Each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan; the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and frequently in use
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French Revolution
The FRENCH REVOLUTION (French : _Révolution française_ ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire . The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies . Through the Revolutionary Wars , it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East . Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history . The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years\' War and the American Revolutionary War , the French government was deeply in debt and attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were heavily regressive
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