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V Speeds
In aviation, V-speeds are standard terms used to define airspeeds important or useful to the operation of all aircraft.[1] These speeds are derived from data obtained by aircraft designers and manufacturers during flight testing and verified in most countries by government flight inspectors during aircraft type-certification testing. Using them is considered a best practice to maximize aviation safety, aircraft performance or both.[2] The actual speeds represented by these designators are specific to a particular model of aircraft. They are expressed by the aircraft's indicated airspeed (and not by, for example, the ground speed), so that pilots may use them directly, without having to apply correction factors, as aircraft instruments also show indicated airspeed. In general aviation aircraft, the most commonly used and most safety-critical airspeeds are displayed as color-coded arcs and lines located on the face of an aircraft's airspeed indicator
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Endurance (aeronautics)
In aviation, endurance is the maximum length of time that an aircraft can spend in cruising flight. Endurance is different from range, which is a measure of distance flown
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FAA
The Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation. These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles.Contents1 Major functions 2 Organizations 3 Regions and Aeronautical Center Operations 4 History 5 21st century5.1 FAA reauthorization and air traffic control reform6 Criticism6.1 Conflicting roles 6.2 Changes to air traffic controller application process7 List of FAA Administrators 8 FAA process8.1 Designated Engineering Representative 8.2 Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR)9 See also 10 References 11 External linksMajor functions[edit] The FAA's roles include:Regulating U.S
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Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.[1] This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity.[2][3] Drag force is proportional to the velocity for a laminar flow and the squared velocity for a turbulent flow
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Range (aeronautics)
The maximal total range is the maximum distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. The range can be seen as the cross-country ground speed multiplied by the maximum time in the air. The fuel time limit for powered aircraft is fixed by the fuel load and rate of consumption. When all fuel is consumed, the engines stop and the aircraft will lose its propulsion. Ferry range means the maximum range the aircraft can fly. This usually means maximum fuel load, optionally with extra fuel tanks and minimum equipment. It refers to transport of aircraft without any passengers or cargo. Combat range is the maximum range the aircraft can fly when carrying ordnance
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Lift-to-drag Ratio
In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the aerodynamic drag it creates by moving through the air. A higher or more favorable L/D ratio
L/D ratio
is typically one of the major goals in aircraft design; since a particular aircraft's required lift is set by its weight, delivering that lift with lower drag leads directly to better fuel economy in aircraft, climb performance, and glide ratio. The term is calculated for any particular airspeed by measuring the lift generated, then dividing by the drag at that speed. These vary with speed, so the results are typically plotted on a 2D graph
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Gliding Flight
Gliding
Gliding
flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.[1] It is employed by gliding animals and by aircraft such as gliders. This mode of flight involves flying a significant distance horizontally compared to its descent and therefore can be distinguished from a mostly straight downward descent like with a round parachute. Although the human application of gliding flight usually refers to aircraft designed for this purpose, most powered aircraft are capable of gliding without engine power. As with sustained flight, gliding generally requires the application of an airfoil, such as the wings on aircraft or birds, or the gliding membrane of a gliding possum. However, gliding can be achieved with a flat (uncambered) wing, as with a simple paper plane,[2] or even with card-throwing
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Ballistic Recovery Systems
Ballistic Recovery Systems, Inc. (commonly referred to as BRS Aerospace, or simply BRS) is a manufacturer of aircraft ballistic parachutes. The company was formed in 1980 by Boris Popov of Saint Paul, Minnesota, after he survived a 400-foot (120 m) fall in a partially collapsed hang glider in 1975. As a result, Popov invented a parachute system that could lower an entire light aircraft to the ground in the event of loss of control, failure of the aircraft structure, or other in-flight emergencies.[1] Popov was granted a U.S
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Mach Number
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number
Mach number
(M or Ma) (/mɑːx/; German: [maχ]) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.[1][2] M = u c , displaystyle mathrm M = frac u c , where:M is the Mach number, u is the local flow velocity with respect to the boundaries (either internal, such as an object immersed in the flow, or external, like a channel), and c is the speed of sound in the medium.By definition, at Mach 1 the local flow velocity u is equal to the speed of sound
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Angle Of Climb
In aerodynamics, climb gradient is the ratio between distance travelled over the ground and altitude gained, and is expressed as a percentage. The angle of climb can be defined as the angle between a horizontal plane representing the Earth's surface and the actual flight path followed by the aircraft during its ascent. The speed of an aircraft type at which the angle of climb is largest is called VX. It is always slower than VY, the speed for the best rate of climb. As the latter gives the quickest way for gaining altitude levels, regardless of the distance covered during such a maneuver, it is more relevant to cruising. The maximum angle of climb on the other hand is where the aircraft gains the most altitude in a given distance, regardless of the time needed for the maneuver. This is important for clearing an obstacle, and therefore is the speed a pilot uses when executing a "short field" takeoff
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Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation. These include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles.Contents1 Major functions 2 Organizations 3 Regions and Aeronautical Center Operations 4 History 5 21st century5.1 FAA reauthorization and air traffic control reform6 Criticism6.1 Conflicting roles 6.2 Changes to air traffic controller application process7 List of FAA Administrators 8 FAA process8.1 Designated Engineering Representative 8.2 Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR)9 See also 10 References 11 External linksMajor functions[edit] The FAA's roles include:Regulating U.S
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Transport Canada
Transport Canada
Transport Canada
(French: Transports Canada) is the department within the government of Canada which is responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of transportation in Canada. It is part of the Transportation, Infrastructure and Communities (TIC) portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada
Transport Canada
has its offices in Ottawa, Ontario.[1]Contents1 History 2 Headquarters 3 Structure 4 Enforcement 5 Road 6 Rail 7 Marine 8 Aviation8.1 Civil Aviation Authority 8.2 Air accident investigation 8.3 Surveillance fleet9 Recent controversies 10 See also 11 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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Code Of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register
Federal Register
by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States
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