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V Bomber
The term V bomber
V bomber
was used for the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that composed the United Kingdom's strategic nuclear strike force known officially as the V-force or Bomber Command Main Force. The strategic bombers, whose names all started with the letter "V" and which were known collectively as the V-class, included the Vickers Valiant
Vickers Valiant
(first flew 1951, entered service 1955), Avro Vulcan
Avro Vulcan
(first flew 1952, in service 1956) and Handley Page Victor
Handley Page Victor
(first flew 1952, in service 1958). The V-Bomber force reached its peak in June 1964, with 50 Valiants, 70 Vulcans and 39 Victors in service. When it became clear that Soviet surface-to-air missiles like the S-75 Dvina could successfully bring down high flying aircraft, the V bomber force changed to low-level attack methods
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Suez Crisis
Coalition military victory;[1][2][3] Egyptian political victory[1]Anglo-French withdrawal following international pressure (December 1956) Israeli occupation of Sinai
Sinai
(until March 1957) UNEF deployment in Sinai[4] Straits of Tiran
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Piston-engine
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion. This article describes the common features of all types. The main types are: the internal combustion engine, used extensively in motor vehicles; the steam engine, the mainstay of the Industrial Revolution; and the niche application Stirling engine
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Navigation And Bombing System
The Navigation and Bombing System, or NBS, was a navigation system used in the Royal Air Force's V-bomber fleet. Primary among its parts was the Navigation and Bombing Computer (NBC), a complex analog computer that combined the functions of dead reckoning navigation calculation with a bombsight calculator to provide outputs that guided the aircraft and automatically dropped the bombs with accuracy on the order of a few hundred meters on missions over thousands of kilometers. Inputs to the NBS system included late models of the H2S radar, the True Airspeed Unit, an astrocompass, the Green Satin radar, and a radio altimeter. These inputs were used to set the Ground Speed Unit, which carried out the navigation calculations, which in turn fed the NBS. The NBS, in turn, fed the Mark XIV bomb sight for visual sighting, as well the autopilot systems. References[edit]Bonnor, Norman (1997). "Chapter 10: From the 60s to the 80s, The Last Days of Airborne Analog Computing" (PDF)
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Falklands War
British victoryRelations severed until 1989 Argentine military government replaced with democratic government in October 1983Territorial changes Status quo ante bellum in South Georgia and the Falklands Argentine occupation of Southern Thule
Southern Thule
endedBelligerents United Kingdom  ArgentinaCommanders and leaders Margaret Thatcher Sir Terence Lewin S
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Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago
(Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Filipino: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina
Indochina
and Australia. It has also been called the Malay World, Indo-Australian Archipelago, East Indies, Nusantara, Spices Archipelago, and other names over time. The name was taken from the 19th-century European concept of a Malay race, later based on the distribution of Austronesian
Austronesian
languages.[4] Situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, the group of over 25,000 islands is the largest archipelago by area, and fourth by number of islands in the world
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Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation
Commonwealth victory:Largely ended when Sukarno
Sukarno
was replaced by Suharto. Indonesia
Indonesia
accepts formation of Malaysia.[16] Sarawak Insurgency continues until 1990.Belligerents Commonwealth of Na
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Tanker Aircraft
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.[1] The two main refueling systems are probe-and-drogue, which is simpler to adapt to existing aircraft, and the flying boom, which offers faster fuel transfer, but requires a dedicated boom operator station. The procedure allows the receiving aircraft to remain airborne longer, extending its range or loiter time on station. A series of air refuelings can give range limited only by crew fatigue and engineering factors such as engine oil consumption. Because the receiver aircraft can be topped up with extra fuel in the air, air refueling can allow a takeoff with a greater payload which could be weapons, cargo, or personnel: the maximum takeoff weight is maintained by carrying less fuel and topping up once airborne
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List Of Air Ministry Specifications
This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry
Air Ministry
(AM) specifications for aircraft. A specification stemmed from an Operational Requirement, abbreviated "OR", describing what the aircraft would be used for. This in turn led to the specification itself, e.g. a two-engined fighter with 4 machine guns. So for example, OR.40 for a heavy bomber led to Specification B.12/36. Aircraft
Aircraft
manufacturers would be invited to present design proposals to the Ministry, following which prototypes of one or more of the proposals might be ordered for evaluation. On very rare occasions, a manufacturer would design and build an aircraft using their own money as a "Private Venture" (PV). This would then be offered to the Ministry for evaluation
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Avro Lancaster
The Avro
Avro
Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber. It was designed and manufactured by Avro
Avro
as a contemporary of the Handley Page
Handley Page
Halifax, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling, all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) during the same wartime era. The Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro
Avro
Manchester
Manchester
which had been developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use"
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Panavia Tornado
The Panavia Tornado
Panavia Tornado
is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing multirole combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. There are three primary Tornado variants: the Tornado IDS (interdictor/strike) fighter-bomber, the suppression of enemy air defences Tornado ECR (electronic combat/reconnaissance) and the Tornado ADV (air defence variant) interceptor aircraft. The Tornado was developed and built by Panavia Aircraft GmbH, a tri-national consortium consisting of British Aerospace
British Aerospace
(previously British Aircraft Corporation), MBB of West Germany, and Aeritalia of Italy. It first flew on 14 August 1974 and was introduced into service in 1979–1980. Due to its multirole design, it was able to replace several different fleets of aircraft in the adopting air forces
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Henry Tizard
Sir Henry Thomas Tizard GCB AFC FRS (23 August 1885 – 9 October 1959) was an English chemist, inventor and Rector of Imperial College, who developed the modern "octane rating" used to classify petrol, helped develop radar in World War II, and led the first serious studies of UFOs.Contents1 Life 2 Career2.1 World War I 2.2 World War II 2.3 Post-WWII3 Awards and honors 4 Death 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksLife[edit] Tizard was born in Gillingham, Kent
Gillingham, Kent
in 1885, the only son of Thomas Henry Tizard (1839–1924), naval officer and hydrographer, and his wife, Mary Elizabeth Churchward. His ambition to join the navy was thwarted by poor eyesight, and he instead studied at Westminster School and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he concentrated on mathematics and chemistry, doing work on indicators and the motions of ions in gases
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Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
was a research and development undertaking during World War II
World War II
that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States
United States
with the support of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys
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Tizard Committee
The Committee for the Scientific Survey of Air Defence (CSSAD),[1] also known as the Tizard Committee after its chairman, Henry Tizard, was a pre- World War II
World War II
scientific mission to study the needs of anti-aircraft warfare in the UK. The Committee is best known for its role in shepherding the development of radar and the building of the Chain Home
Chain Home
radar array and its associated control centres
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Missile
In modern language, a missile is a self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided). Missiles have four system components: targeting or missile guidance, flight system, engine, and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles (ballistic, cruise, anti-ship, anti-tank, etc.), surface-to-air missiles (and anti-ballistic), air-to-air missiles, and anti-satellite weapons
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