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Uzbek Language
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan. The language of Uzbeks, it is spoken by some 28 million native speakers in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and elsewhere in Central Asia. Uzbek belongs to the Eastern Turkic, or Karluk, branch of the Turkic language family. External influences include Persian, Arabic
Arabic
and Russian. One of the most noticeable distinctions of Uzbek from other Turkic languages
Turkic languages
is the rounding of the vowel /a/ to /ɒ/, a feature that was influenced by Persian.Contents1 Name 2 History 3 Number of speakers 4 Loan words 5 Dialects 6 Writing systems 7 Phonology7.1 Vowels 7.2 Consonants8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External linksName[edit] In the language itself, Uzbek is oʻzbek tili or oʻzbekcha
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Timurid Dynasty
The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim[1] dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
lineage[2][3][4][5] descended from the warlord Timur
Timur
(also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law",[6] as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,[7][full citation needed] founder of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Chagatai Khan
Chagatai Khan
Chagatai Khan
(Mongolian: Цагадай, Tsagadai; Chinese: 察合台, Chágětái; Turkish: Çağatay; Persian: جغتای‬‎, Joghatai; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the second son of Genghis Khan. He was Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
from 1226-1242 C.E.[1] The Chagatai language
Chagatai language
and Chagatai Turks take their names from him. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states after the death of his father.[1] He was also appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the execution of the Yassa, the written code of law created by Genghis Khan, though that lasted only until Genghis Khan was crowned Khan of the Mongol Empire.[1] The Empire later came to be known as the Chagatai Khanate, a descendant empire of the Mongol Empire
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Yagma
The Yagmas, or Yaghmas, were a medieval tribe of Turkic people that came to the forefront of history after the disintegration of the Western Turkic Kaganate. They were one component of a confederation which consisted of Yagma, the Karluks, the Chigils and other tribes which founded the Kara-Khanid Khanate
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Chigils
The Chigil (Chihil, and also Jigil, Djikil, Chiyal) were a Turkic tribe known from the 7th century CE as living around Issyk Kul lake area. They were considered to be descended from two of the "Six Chuy tribes" of the Chuban, the Chuyue and Chumi. They are known to have been speakers of the Oghuz group of the Turkic languages.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Religion 4 Toponymic traces 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Sinologist Yu. A. Zuev suggests an etymology of the name Chigil from the Chinese transcriptions of the ethnonyms Chigil (Ch. 處月 Chuyue "abode of the Moon [god]") and Chumul (Ch. 處密(or 蜜) Chumi "abode of the Sun [god]"). However, he notes that neither Turkic-Buddhist texts, nor the Turkic-Manichaean literature and other sources containing information about Turkic Manichaeism, give a genealogical meaning in reference to the invocation of the Sun and Moon (Turk
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Sogdia
Sogdia
Sogdia
or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent
Panjikent
and Shahrisabz. Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire, eighteenth in the list on the Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
of Darius the Great (i. 16)
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Eastern Iranian Languages
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC). The Avestan language is often classified as early Eastern Iranian. The largest living Eastern Iranian language is Pashto, with some 50–60 million speakers between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan. As opposed to the Middle Western Iranian dialects, the Middle Eastern Iranian preserves word-final syllables. The living Eastern Iranian languages are spoken in a contiguous area, in eastern Afghanistan as well as the adjacent parts of western Pakistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province of eastern Tajikistan, and the far west of Xinjiang region of China, while it also has two other living members in widely separated areas, the Yaghnobi language of northwestern Tajikistan (descended from Sogdian) and the Ossetic language of the Caucasus (descended from Scytho-Sarmatian)
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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ISO 639-1
 ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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List Of Language Regulators
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors. Many world languages have one or more language academies
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