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User Story
In software development and product management , a USER STORY is an informal, natural language description of one or more features of a software system. User stories are often written from the perspective of an end user or user of a system . They are often recorded on index cards, on Post-it notes , or in project management software. Depending on the project, user stories may be written by various stakeholders including clients, users, managers or development team members. User stories are a type of boundary object . They facilitate sensemaking and communication, that is, they help software teams organize their understanding of the system and its context. User stories are often confused with system requirements . A requirement is a formal description of need; a user story is an informal description of a feature. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Creating user stories * 2.1 Format * 3 Examples * 4 Usage * 5 Benefits * 6 Limitations * 7 Story map * 8 Comparing with use cases * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading HISTORY _ This article or section MAY HAVE BEEN COPIED AND PASTED FROM HTTPS://WWW.AGILEALLIANCE.ORG/GLOSSARY/USER-STORIES/ (DUPDET · CopyVios), possibly_ in violation of\'s copyright policy . Please remedy this by editing this article to remove any non-free copyrighted content and attributing free content correctly, or flagging the content for deletion
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Software Development
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT is the process of computer programming , documenting , testing , and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications and frameworks resulting in a software product . Software development is a process of writing and maintaining the source code , but in a broader sense, it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the final manifestation of the software, sometimes in a planned and structured process. Therefore, software development may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products. Software can be developed for a variety of purposes, the three most common being to meet specific needs of a specific client/business (the case with custom software ), to meet a perceived need of some set of potential users (the case with commercial and open source software ), or for personal use (e.g. a scientist may write software to automate a mundane task). EMBEDDED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT, that is, the development of embedded software such as used for controlling consumer products, requires the development process to be integrated with the development of the controlled physical product. System software underlies applications and the programming process itself, and is often developed separately
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Software Development Process
In software engineering , a SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS is the process of dividing software development work into distinct phases to improve design , product management , and project management . It is also known as a SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE. The methodology may include the pre-definition of specific deliverables and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application. Most modern development processes can be vaguely described as agile . Other methodologies include waterfall , prototyping , iterative and incremental development , spiral development , rapid application development , and extreme programming . Some people consider a life-cycle "model" a more general term for a category of methodologies and a software development "process" a more specific term to refer to a specific process chosen by a specific organization. For example, there are many specific software development processes that fit the spiral life-cycle model
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Requirements Analysis
In systems engineering and software engineering , REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product or project, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders , _analyzing, documenting, validating and managing_ software or system requirements. Requirements analysis
Requirements analysis
is critical to the success or failure of a systems or software project. The requirements should be documented, actionable, measurable, testable, traceable, related to identified business needs or opportunities, and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design
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Software Design
SOFTWARE DESIGN is the process by which an agent creates a specification of a software artifact , intended to accomplish goals , using a set of primitive components and subject to constraints . Software
Software
design may refer to either "all the activity involved in conceptualizing, framing, implementing, commissioning, and ultimately modifying complex systems" or "the activity following requirements specification and before programming , as ... a stylized software engineering process." Software
Software
design usually involves problem solving and planning a software solution. This includes both a low-level component and algorithm design and a high-level, architecture design. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Design
Design
Concepts * 3 Design
Design
considerations * 4 Modeling language * 5 Design patterns * 6 Technique * 7 Usage * 8 See also * 9 References OVERVIEW Software
Software
design is the process of implementing software solutions to one or more sets of problems. One of the main components of software design is the software requirements analysis (SRA). SRA is a part of the software development process that lists specifications used in software engineering . If the software is "semi-automated" or user centered , software design may involve user experience design yielding a storyboard to help determine those specifications
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Software Engineering
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (SE) is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method
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Software Construction
SOFTWARE CONSTRUCTION is a software engineering discipline. It is the detailed creation of working meaningful software through a combination of coding , verification , unit testing , integration testing , and debugging . It is linked to all the other software engineering disciplines, most strongly to software design and software testing . CONTENTS* 1 Software construction fundamentals * 1.1 Minimizing complexity * 1.2 Anticipating change * 1.3 Constructing for verification * 1.4 Reuse * 1.5 Standards in construction * 2 Managing construction * 2.1 Construction models * 2.2 Construction planning * 2.3 Construction measurement * 3 Practical considerations * 3.1 Construction design * 3.2 Construction languages * 3.3 Coding * 3.4 Construction testing * 3.5 Reuse * 3.6 Construction quality * 3.7 Integration * 4 Construction technologies * 4.1 Object-Oriented Runtime Issues * 4.2 Assertions, Design by Contract, and Defensive Programming * 4.3 Error Handling, Exception Handling, and Fault Tolerance * 4.4 State-Based and Table-Driven Construction Techniques * 4.5 Runtime Configuration and Internationalization * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links SOFTWARE CONSTRUCTION FUNDAMENTALSMINIMIZING COMPLEXITYThe need to reduce complexity is mainly driven by limited ability of most people to hold complex structures and information in their working memories
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Software Testing
SOFTWARE TESTING is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test. Software
Software
testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects), and verifying that the software product is fit for use. Software
Software
testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest. In general, these properties indicate the extent to which the component or system under test: * meets the requirements that guided its design and development, * responds correctly to all kinds of inputs, * performs its functions within an acceptable time, * is sufficiently usable, * can be installed and run in its intended environments , and * achieves the general result its stakeholders desire.As the number of possible tests for even simple software components is practically infinite, all software testing uses some strategy to select tests that are feasible for the available time and resources. As a result, software testing typically (but not exclusively) attempts to execute a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects)
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Debugging
DEBUGGING is the process of finding and resolving of defects that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system . Debugging
Debugging
tactics can involve interactive debugging, control flow analysis, unit testing , integration testing , log file analysis , monitoring at the application or system level, memory dumps , and profiling . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Scope * 3 Tools * 4 Debugging
Debugging
process * 5 Techniques * 6 Debugging
Debugging
for embedded systems * 7 Anti-debugging * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links ORIGIN A computer log entry from the Mark II, with a moth taped to the page The terms "bug" and "debugging" are popularly attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper in the 1940s. While she was working on a Mark II computer at Harvard University, her associates discovered a moth stuck in a relay and thereby impeding operation, whereupon she remarked that they were "debugging" the system. However the term "bug" in the meaning of technical error dates back at least to 1878 and Thomas Edison (see software bug for a full discussion). Similarly, the term "debugging" seems to have been used as a term in aeronautics before entering the world of computers. Indeed, in an interview Grace Hopper remarked that she was not coining the term. The moth fit the already existing terminology, so it was saved. A letter from J
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Software Deployment
SOFTWARE DEPLOYMENT is all of the activities that make a software system available for use. The general deployment process consists of several interrelated activities with possible transitions between them. These activities can occur at the producer side or at the consumer side or both. Because every software system is unique, the precise processes or procedures within each activity can hardly be defined. Therefore, "deployment" should be interpreted as a _general process_ that has to be customized according to specific requirements or characteristics. A brief description of each activity will be presented later. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Deployment activities * 3 Deployment roles * 4 See also * 4.1 Deployment tools * 5 External links HISTORY _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2017)_When computers were extremely large, expensive and bulky (mainframes and minicomputers), software was often bundled together with the hardware by manufacturers. If business software needed to be installed on an existing computer, this might require an expensive, time-consuming visit by a systems architect or a consultant . For complex, on-premises installation of enterprise software today, this can still sometimes be the case
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Software Maintenance
SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes. A common perception of maintenance is that it merely involves fixing defects . However, one study indicated that over 80% of maintenance effort is used for non-corrective actions. This perception is perpetuated by users submitting problem reports that in reality are functionality enhancements to the system. More recent studies put the bug-fixing proportion closer to 21%. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Importance of software maintenance * 3 Software maintenance planning * 4 Software maintenance processes * 5 Categories of maintenance in ISO/IEC 14764 * 6 Maintenance Factors * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORY Software maintenance and evolution of systems was first addressed by Meir M. Lehman in 1969. Over a period of twenty years, his research led to the formulation of Lehman\'s Laws (Lehman 1997). Key findings of his research include that maintenance is really evolutionary development and that maintenance decisions are aided by understanding what happens to systems (and software) over time. Lehman demonstrated that systems continue to evolve over time. As they evolve, they grow more complex unless some action such as code refactoring is taken to reduce the complexity
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Software Prototyping
SOFTWARE PROTOTYPING is the activity of creating prototypes of software applications, i.e., incomplete versions of the software program being developed. It is an activity that can occur in software development and is comparable to prototyping as known from other fields, such as mechanical engineering or manufacturing . A prototype typically simulates only a few aspects of, and may be completely different from, the final product. Prototyping has several benefits: the software designer and implementer can get valuable feedback from the users early in the project. The client and the contractor can compare if the software made matches the software specification , according to which the software program is built. It also allows the software engineer some insight into the accuracy of initial project estimates and whether the deadlines and milestones proposed can be successfully met. The degree of completeness and the techniques used in prototyping have been in development and debate since its proposal in the early 1970s
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Cleanroom Software Engineering
The CLEANROOM SOFTWARE ENGINEERING process is a software development process intended to produce software with a certifiable level of reliability . The cleanroom process was originally developed by Harlan Mills and several of his colleagues including Alan Hevner at IBM . The focus of the cleanroom process is on defect prevention, rather than defect removal. The name "cleanroom" was chosen to invoke the cleanrooms used in the electronics industry to prevent the introduction of defects during the fabrication of semiconductors . The cleanroom process first saw use in the mid to late 1980s. Demonstration projects within the military began in the early 1990s. Recent work on the cleanroom process has examined fusing cleanroom with the automated verification capabilities provided by specifications expressed in CSP . CONTENTS * 1 Central principles * 2 References * 3 Further reading * 4 External links CENTRAL PRINCIPLESThe basic principles of the cleanroom process are Software development based on formal methods Software tool support based on some mathematical formalism includes model checking , process algebras , and Petri nets . The Box Structure Method might be one such means of specifying and designing a software product. Verification that the design correctly implements the specification is performed through team review, often with software tool support
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Incremental Build Model
The INCREMENTAL BUILD MODEL is a method of software development where the product is designed , implemented and tested incrementally (a little more is added each time) until the product is finished. It involves both development and maintenance. The product is defined as finished when it satisfies all of its requirements. This model combines the elements of the waterfall model with the iterative philosophy of prototyping . The product is decomposed into a number of components, each of which is designed and built separately (termed as builds). Each component is delivered to the client when it is complete. This allows partial utilization of the product and avoids a long development time. It also avoids a large initial capital outlay and subsequent long waiting period. This model of development also helps ease the traumatic effect of introducing a completely new system all at once. There are, however, several problems with this model. ==Incremental model==renini The incremental model applies the waterfall model incrementally. The series of releases is referred to as “increments”, with each increment providing more functionality to the customers. After the first increment, a core product is delivered, which can already be used by the customer. Based on customer feedback, a plan is developed for the next increments, and modifications are made accordingly. This process continues, with increments being delivered until the complete product is delivered
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Waterfall Model
The WATERFALL MODEL is a sequential (non-iterative) design process, used in software development processes , in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall ) through the phases of conception, initiation, analysis , design , construction, testing , production/implementation and maintenance . The waterfall development model originates in the manufacturing and construction industries: highly structured physical environments in which after-the-fact changes are prohibitively costly, if not impossible. Because it was created in a time when no formal software development methodologies existed, this hardware-oriented model was simply adapted for software development. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Model * 3 Supporting arguments * 4 Criticism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe first known presentation describing use of similar phases in software engineering was held by Herbert D. Benington at Symposium on advanced programming methods for digital computers on 29 June 1956. This presentation was about the development of software for SAGE . In 1983 the paper was republished with a foreword by Benington pointing out that the process was not in fact performed in a strict top-down fashion, but depended on a prototype. The first formal description of the waterfall model is often cited as a 1970 article by Winston W. Royce , although Royce did not use the term _waterfall_ in that article
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Agile Software Development
AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT describes a set of values and principles for software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing cross-functional teams . It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change. The term agile (sometimes written Agile) was popularized by the Agile Manifesto, which defines those values and principles. Agile software development frameworks continue to evolve, two of the most widely used being Scrum and Kanban . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The Manifesto for Agile Software
Software
Development * 2.1 Individuals and interactions * 2.2 Working software * 2.3 Customer collaboration * 2.4 Responding to change * 2.5 Agile software development
Agile software development
principles * 3 Overview * 3.1 Iterative, incremental and evolutionary * 3.2 Efficient and face-to-face communication * 3.3 Very short feedback loop and adaptation cycle * 3.4 Quality focus * 4 Philosophy * 4.1 Adaptive vs. predictive * 4.2 Iterative vs. waterfall * 4.3 Code vs
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