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User Story
In software development and product management , a USER STORY is an informal, natural language description of one or more features of a software system. User stories are often written from the perspective of an end user or user of a system . They are often recorded on index cards, on Post-it notes , or in project management software. Depending on the project, user stories may be written by various stakeholders including clients, users, managers or development team members. User stories are a type of boundary object . They facilitate sensemaking and communication, that is, they help software teams organize their understanding of the system and its context. User stories are often confused with system requirements . A requirement is a formal description of need; a user story is an informal description of a feature
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Software Development
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT is the process of computer programming , documenting , testing , and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications and frameworks resulting in a software product . Software development is a process of writing and maintaining the source code , but in a broader sense, it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the final manifestation of the software, sometimes in a planned and structured process. Therefore, software development may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products
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Software Development Process
In software engineering , a SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS is the process of dividing software development work into distinct phases to improve design , product management , and project management . It is also known as a SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE. The methodology may include the pre-definition of specific deliverables and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application. Most modern development processes can be vaguely described as agile . Other methodologies include waterfall , prototyping , iterative and incremental development , spiral development , rapid application development , and extreme programming . Some people consider a life-cycle "model" a more general term for a category of methodologies and a software development "process" a more specific term to refer to a specific process chosen by a specific organization. For example, there are many specific software development processes that fit the spiral life-cycle model
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Requirements Analysis
In systems engineering and software engineering , REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product or project, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders , _analyzing, documenting, validating and managing_ software or system requirements. Requirements analysis
Requirements analysis
is critical to the success or failure of a systems or software project. The requirements should be documented, actionable, measurable, testable, traceable, related to identified business needs or opportunities, and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design
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Software Design
SOFTWARE DESIGN is the process by which an agent creates a specification of a software artifact , intended to accomplish goals , using a set of primitive components and subject to constraints . Software
Software
design may refer to either "all the activity involved in conceptualizing, framing, implementing, commissioning, and ultimately modifying complex systems" or "the activity following requirements specification and before programming , as ... a stylized software engineering process." Software
Software
design usually involves problem solving and planning a software solution. This includes both a low-level component and algorithm design and a high-level, architecture design
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Software Engineering
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (SE) is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method
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Software Construction
SOFTWARE CONSTRUCTION is a software engineering discipline. It is the detailed creation of working meaningful software through a combination of coding , verification , unit testing , integration testing , and debugging . It is linked to all the other software engineering disciplines, most strongly to software design and software testing
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Software Testing
SOFTWARE TESTING is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test. Software
Software
testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs (errors or other defects), and verifying that the software product is fit for use. Software
Software
testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest
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Debugging
DEBUGGING is the process of finding and resolving of defects that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system . Debugging
Debugging
tactics can involve interactive debugging, control flow analysis, unit testing , integration testing , log file analysis , monitoring at the application or system level, memory dumps , and profiling . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Scope * 3 Tools * 4 Debugging
Debugging
process * 5 Techniques * 6 Debugging
Debugging
for embedded systems * 7 Anti-debugging * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links ORIGIN A computer log entry from the Mark II, with a moth taped to the page The terms "bug" and "debugging" are popularly attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper in the 1940s
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Software Deployment
SOFTWARE DEPLOYMENT is all of the activities that make a software system available for use. The general deployment process consists of several interrelated activities with possible transitions between them. These activities can occur at the producer side or at the consumer side or both. Because every software system is unique, the precise processes or procedures within each activity can hardly be defined. Therefore, "deployment" should be interpreted as a _general process_ that has to be customized according to specific requirements or characteristics. A brief description of each activity will be presented later. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Deployment activities * 3 Deployment roles * 4 See also * 4.1 Deployment tools * 5 External links HISTORY _ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION
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Software Maintenance
SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes. A common perception of maintenance is that it merely involves fixing defects . However, one study indicated that over 80% of maintenance effort is used for non-corrective actions. This perception is perpetuated by users submitting problem reports that in reality are functionality enhancements to the system. More recent studies put the bug-fixing proportion closer to 21%. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Importance of software maintenance * 3 Software maintenance planning * 4 Software maintenance processes * 5 Categories of maintenance in ISO/IEC 14764 * 6 Maintenance Factors * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORY Software maintenance and evolution of systems was first addressed by Meir M. Lehman in 1969
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Software Prototyping
SOFTWARE PROTOTYPING is the activity of creating prototypes of software applications, i.e., incomplete versions of the software program being developed. It is an activity that can occur in software development and is comparable to prototyping as known from other fields, such as mechanical engineering or manufacturing . A prototype typically simulates only a few aspects of, and may be completely different from, the final product. Prototyping has several benefits: the software designer and implementer can get valuable feedback from the users early in the project. The client and the contractor can compare if the software made matches the software specification , according to which the software program is built. It also allows the software engineer some insight into the accuracy of initial project estimates and whether the deadlines and milestones proposed can be successfully met
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Cleanroom Software Engineering
The CLEANROOM SOFTWARE ENGINEERING process is a software development process intended to produce software with a certifiable level of reliability . The cleanroom process was originally developed by Harlan Mills and several of his colleagues including Alan Hevner at IBM . The focus of the cleanroom process is on defect prevention, rather than defect removal. The name "cleanroom" was chosen to invoke the cleanrooms used in the electronics industry to prevent the introduction of defects during the fabrication of semiconductors . The cleanroom process first saw use in the mid to late 1980s. Demonstration projects within the military began in the early 1990s. Recent work on the cleanroom process has examined fusing cleanroom with the automated verification capabilities provided by specifications expressed in CSP
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Incremental Build Model
The INCREMENTAL BUILD MODEL is a method of software development where the product is designed , implemented and tested incrementally (a little more is added each time) until the product is finished. It involves both development and maintenance. The product is defined as finished when it satisfies all of its requirements. This model combines the elements of the waterfall model with the iterative philosophy of prototyping . The product is decomposed into a number of components, each of which is designed and built separately (termed as builds). Each component is delivered to the client when it is complete. This allows partial utilization of the product and avoids a long development time. It also avoids a large initial capital outlay and subsequent long waiting period. This model of development also helps ease the traumatic effect of introducing a completely new system all at once. There are, however, several problems with this model
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Waterfall Model
The WATERFALL MODEL is a sequential (non-iterative) design process, used in software development processes , in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall ) through the phases of conception, initiation, analysis , design , construction, testing , production/implementation and maintenance . The waterfall development model originates in the manufacturing and construction industries: highly structured physical environments in which after-the-fact changes are prohibitively costly, if not impossible. Because it was created in a time when no formal software development methodologies existed, this hardware-oriented model was simply adapted for software development. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Model * 3 Supporting arguments * 4 Criticism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe first known presentation describing use of similar phases in software engineering was held by Herbert D
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Agile Software Development
AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT describes a set of values and principles for software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing cross-functional teams . It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change. The term agile (sometimes written Agile) was popularized by the Agile Manifesto, which defines those values and principles. Agile software development frameworks continue to evolve, two of the most widely used being Scrum and Kanban
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