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Use–mention Distinction
The use–mention distinction is a foundational concept of analytic philosophy,[1] according to which it is necessary to make a distinction between using a word (or phrase) and mentioning it,[2][3] and many philosophical works have been "vitiated by a failure to distinguish use and mention".[2] The distinction is disputed by non-analytic philosophers.[4] The distinction between use and mention can be illustrated for the word cheese:[2][3]Use: Cheese is derived from milk. Mention: 'Cheese' is derived from the Old English word ċēse.The first sentence is a statement about the substance called "cheese"; it uses the word 'cheese' to refer to that substance. The second is a statement about the word 'cheese' as a signifier; it mentions the word without using it to refer to anything other than itself.Contents1 Grammar 2 In philosophy 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksGrammar[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification
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Foundational
Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.[1] Its main rival is coherentism, whereby a body of knowledge, not requiring a secure foundation, can be established by the interlocking strength of its components, like a puzzle solved without prior certainty that each small region was solved correctly.[1] Identifying the alternatives as either circular reasoning or infinite regress, and thus exhibiting the regress problem, Aristotle made foundationalism his own clear choice, positing basic beliefs underpinning others.[2] Descartes, the most famed foundationalist, discovered a foundation in the fact of his own existence and in the "clear and distinct" ideas of reason,[1][2] whereas Locke found a foundation in experience
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Encyclopedia Of Philosophy
The Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of Philosophy
Philosophy
is one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy. The first edition of the encyclopedia was in eight volumes, edited by Paul Edwards, and published in 1967 by Macmillan; it was reprinted in four volumes in 1972. A "Supplement" volume, edited by Donald M. Borchert, was added to the reprinted first edition in 1996, containing articles on developments in philosophy since 1967, covering new subjects and scholarship updates or new articles on those written about in the first edition. A second edition, also edited by Borchert, was published in ten volumes in 2006 by Macmillan Reference USA. Volumes 1–9 contain alphabetically ordered articles
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Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic. These results, published by Kurt Gödel
Kurt Gödel
in 1931, are important both in mathematical logic and in the philosophy of mathematics. The theorems are widely, but not universally, interpreted as showing that Hilbert's program to find a complete and consistent set of axioms for all mathematics is impossible. The first incompleteness theorem states that no consistent system of axioms whose theorems can be listed by an effective procedure (i.e., an algorithm) is capable of proving all truths about the arithmetic of the natural numbers. For any such formal system, there will always be statements about the natural numbers that are true, but that are unprovable within the system
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Diagonal Lemma
In mathematical logic, the diagonal lemma or fixed point theorem establishes the existence of self-referential sentences in certain formal theories of the natural numbers—specifically those theories that are strong enough to represent all computable functions. The sentences whose existence is secured by the diagonal lemma can then, in turn, be used to prove fundamental limitative results such as Gödel's incompleteness theorems and Tarski's undefinability theorem.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Statement of the lemma 3 Proof 4 History 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesBackground[edit] Let N be the set of natural numbers
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Douglas Hofstadter
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world,[1][3] consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics
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Pointer (computer Programming)
Donald Knuth, Structured Programming with go to Statements[1]Pointer a pointing to the memory address associated with variable b. In this diagram, the computing architecture uses the same address space and data primitive for both pointers and non-pointers; this need not be the case.In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object, whose value refers to (or "points to") another value stored elsewhere in the computer memory using its memory address. A pointer references a location in memory, and obtaining the value stored at that location is known as dereferencing the pointer
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Scare Quotes
Scare quotes (also called shudder quotes,[1][2] sneer quotes,[3] and quibble marks) are quotation marks a writer places around a word or phrase to signal that they are using it in a non-standard, ironic, or otherwise special sense.[4] Scare quotes may express that the author is using someone else's term, similar to preceding a phrase with the expression "so-called";[5] they may imply skepticism or disagreement, belief that the words are misused, or that the writer intends a meaning opposite to the words enclosed in quotes.[6]Contents1 History 2 Usage 3 Criticism 4 In speech 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit]
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Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
(SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users. It is maintained by Stanford University. Each entry is written and maintained by an expert in the field, including professors from many academic institutions worldwide. Authors contributing to the encyclopedia give Stanford University
Stanford University
the permission to publish the articles, but retain the copyright to those articles.[1]Contents1 Approach and history 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksApproach and history[edit]Play media"The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Issues Faced by Academic Reference Works That May Be of Interest tons" by Edward N. Zalta. Wikimania 2015, Mexico CityAs of January 2017[update], the SEP has 1,554 published entries
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Peter Simons (academic)
Peter M. Simons, FBA (born 23 March 1950) is a retired professor of philosophy at Trinity College Dublin.Contents1 Biography 2 Awards 3 Publications 4 External linksBiography[edit] Simons studied at the University of Manchester, and has held teaching posts at the University of Bolton, the University of Salzburg, where he is Honorary Professor of Philosophy, and the University of Leeds. He has been President of the European Society for Analytic Philosophy and is current director of the Franz Brentano Foundation. His research interests include metaphysics and ontology, the history of logic, the history of Central European Philosophy, particularly in Austria and Poland in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the application of metaphysics to engineering and other non-philosophical disciplines. He is the author of two books and over 200 articles
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Paradox
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.[1][2] A paradox involves contradictory yet interrelated elements that exist simultaneously and persist over time.[3][4][5] Some logical paradoxes are known to be invalid arguments but are still valuable in promoting critical thinking.[6] Some paradoxes have revealed errors in definitions assumed to be rigorous, and have caused axioms of mathematics and logic to be re-examined
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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George Boolos
George Stephen Boolos (September 4, 1940 – May 27, 1996) was an American philosopher and a mathematical logician who taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Work 3 Publications3.1 Books 3.2 Articles4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] Boolos graduated from Princeton University
Princeton University
in 1961 with an A.B. in mathematics. Oxford University
Oxford University
awarded him the B.Phil. in 1963. In 1966, he obtained the first Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in philosophy ever awarded by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, under the direction of Hilary Putnam
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