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Use–mention Distinction
The USE–MENTION DISTINCTION is a foundational concept of analytic philosophy , according to which it is necessary to make a distinction between _using_ a word (or phrase) and _mentioning_ it, and many philosophical works have been "vitiated by a failure to distinguish use and mention". The distinction is disputed by non-analytic philosophers. The distinction between use and mention can be illustrated for the word _cheese_: * _Use_: Cheese is derived from milk. * _Mention_: 'Cheese' is derived from the Old English word _ċēse_.The first sentence is a statement about the substance called "cheese"; it _uses_ the word 'cheese' to refer to that substance. The second is a statement about the word 'cheese' as a signifier ; it _mentions_ the word without _using_ it to refer to anything other than itself. CONTENTS * 1 Grammar * 2 In philosophy * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References
References
* 6 Further reading * 7 External links GRAMMAR _ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Foundational
FOUNDATIONALISM concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief , or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises. Its main rival is coherentism , whereby a body of knowledge, not requiring a secure foundation, can be established by the interlocking strength of its components, like a puzzle solved without prior certainty that each small region was solved correctly. Identifying the alternatives as either circular reasoning or infinite regress , and thus exhibiting the regress problem , Aristotle
Aristotle
made foundationalism his own clear choice, positing basic beliefs underpinning others. Descartes , the most famed foundationalist, discovered a foundation in the fact of his own existence and in the "clear and distinct" ideas of reason, whereas Locke found a foundation in experience . Differing foundations may reflect differing epistemological emphases—empiricists emphasizing experience, rationalists emphasizing reason—but may blend both. In the 1930s, debate over foundationalism revived. Whereas Schlick viewed scientific knowledge like a pyramid where a special class of statements does not require verification through other beliefs and serves as a foundation, Neurath argued that scientific knowledge lacks an ultimate foundation and acts like a raft
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Analytic Philosophy
ANALYTIC PHILOSOPHY (sometimes ANALYTICAL PHILOSOPHY) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries at the beginning of the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Scandinavia, the majority of university philosophy departments today identify themselves as "analytic" departments. The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to one of several things: * As a philosophical practice, it is characterized by an emphasis on argumentative clarity and precision, often making use of formal logic , conceptual analysis, and, to a lesser degree, mathematics and the natural sciences . * As a historical development, analytical philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Central figures in this historical development are Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , G. E. Moore , Gottlob Frege , and the logical positivists . In this more specific sense, analytic philosophy is identified with specific philosophical traits (many of which are rejected by many contemporary analytic philosophers), such as: * The logical-positivist principle that there are not any specifically philosophical facts and that the object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thoughts
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Dichotomy
A DICHOTOMY /daɪˈkɒtəmi/ is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets). In other words, this couple of parts must be * jointly exhaustive : everything must belong to one part or the other, and * mutually exclusive : nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts.Such a partition is also frequently called a bipartition. The two parts thus formed are complements . In logic , the partitions are opposites if there exists a proposition such that it holds over one and not the other. Treating continuous variables or multicategorical variables as binary variables is called dichotomization . The discretization error inherent in dichotomization is temporarily ignored for modeling purposes. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Usage and examples * 3 See also * 4 Notes and references * 5 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term dichotomy is from the Greek language διχοτομία dichotomía "dividing in two" from δίχα dícha "in two, asunder" and τομή tomḗ "a cutting, incision". USAGE AND EXAMPLES * The above applies directly when the term is used in mathematics , philosophy , literature , or linguistics
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Old English Language
OLD ENGLISH (_Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc_) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language
English language
, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English . Old English
Old English
developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles
Angles
, Saxons , and Jutes
Jutes
. As the Anglo- Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain : Common Brittonic , a Celtic language , and Latin
Latin
, brought to Britain by Roman invasion
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Sign (linguistics)
There are many models of the LINGUISTIC SIGN. A classic model is the one by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure . According to him, language is made up of signs and every sign has two sides (like a coin or a sheet of paper, both sides of which are inseparable): the signifier (French signifiant), the "shape" of a word, its phonic component, i.e. the sequence of graphemes (letters ), e.g., --, or phonemes (speech sounds ), e.g. /kæt/ the signified (French signifié), the ideational component, the concept or object that appears in our minds when we hear or read the signifier e.g. a small domesticated feline (The signified is not to be confused with the "referent ". The former is a "mental concept", the latter the "actual object" in the world) Saussure's understanding of sign is called the two-side model of sign. Furthermore, Saussure separated speech acts (la parole ) from the system of a language (la langue). Parole was the free will of the individual, whereas langue was regulated by the group, albeit unknowingly. Saussure also postulated that once the convention is established, it is very difficult to change, which enables languages to remain both static, through a set vocabulary determined by conventions, and to grow, as new terms are needed to deal with situations and technologies not covered by the old
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Quotation Mark
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円 UNCOMMON TYPOGRAPHY asterism ⁂ hedera ❧ index, fist ☞ interrobang ‽ irony punctuation ⸮ lozenge ◊ tie ⁀ RELATED* * Diacritics * Logic symbols * Whitespace characters IN OTHER SCRIPTS * Chinese * Hebrew * Japanese * Korean * Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* Book
Book
* v * t * e QUOTATION MARKS, also called QUOTES, QUOTE MARKS, QUOTEMARKS, SPEECH MARKS, INVERTED COMMAS or TALKING MARKS, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech , a quotation , or a phrase. The pair consists of an opening quotation mark and a closing quotation mark, which may or may not be the same character. Quotation marks have a variety of forms in different languages and in different media
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Italics
In typography , ITALIC TYPE is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting . Owing to the influence from calligraphy , italics normally slant slightly to the right. Italics are a way to emphasise key points in a printed text, or when quoting a speaker a way to show which words they stressed. One manual of English usage described italics as "the print equivalent of underlining ". The name comes from the fact that calligraphy-inspired typefaces were first designed in Italy
Italy
, to replace documents traditionally written in a handwriting style called chancery hand . Aldus Manutius
Aldus Manutius
and Ludovico Arrighi (both between the 15th and 16th centuries) were the main type designers involved in this process at the time. Different glyph shapes from roman type are usually used – another influence from calligraphy – and upper-case letters may have swashes , flourishes inspired by ornate calligraphy. An alternative is oblique type , in which the type is slanted but the letterforms do not change shape: this less elaborate approach is used by many sans-serif typefaces
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Strunk And White
_THE ELEMENTS OF STYLE_ is a prescriptive American English writing style guide in numerous editions. The original was composed by William Strunk Jr. , in 1918, and published by Harcourt, in 1920, comprising eight "elementary rules of usage", ten "elementary principles of composition", "a few matters of form", a list of 49 "words and expressions commonly misused", and a list of 57 "words often misspelled". E. B. White greatly enlarged and revised the book for publication by Macmillan in 1959. That was the first edition of the so-called "STRUNK & WHITE", which _Time _ named in 2011 as one of the 100 best and most influential books written in English since 1923. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Content * 3 Reception * 4 Editions * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Cornell University English professor William Strunk, Jr. wrote _The Elements of Style_ in 1918 and privately published it in 1919, for in-house use at the university. (Harcourt republished it in 52-page format in 1920.) Later, for publication, he and editor Edward A. Tenney revised it as _The Elements and Practice of Composition_ (1935). In 1957, at _ The New Yorker _, the style guide reached the attention of E.B
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References
REFERENCE is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia ), visual (text), olfactory , or tactile, emotional state , relationship with other, spacetime coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric , a physical object or an energy projection. In some cases, methods are used that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography . References feature in many spheres of human activity and knowledge, and the term adopts shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. Some of them are described in the sections below
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Supposition Theory
SUPPOSITION THEORY was a branch of medieval logic that was probably aimed at giving accounts of issues similar to modern accounts of reference , plurality , tense , and modality , within an Aristotelian context. Philosophers such as John Buridan , William of Ockham , William of Sherwood , Walter Burley
Walter Burley
, and Peter of Spain were its principal developers. By the 14th century it seems to have drifted into at least two fairly distinct theories, the theory of "supposition proper" which included an "ampliation " and is much like a theory of reference, and the theory of "modes of supposition" whose intended function is not clear. CONTENTS * 1 Supposition proper * 2 Modes of supposition * 3 Ampliation * 4 References * 5 External links SUPPOSITION PROPERSupposition was a semantic relation between a term and what it is being used to talk about. So, for example, in the suggestion Drink another cup the term cup is suppositing for the wine contained in the cup. The logical suppositum of a term was the object the term referred to, (in grammar suppositum was used in a different way). However, supposition was a different semantic relationship than signification. Signification was a conventional relationship between utterances and objects mediated by the particularities of a language. Poculum signifies in Latin
Latin
, what cup signifies in English
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Abstract And Concrete
ABSTRACT and CONCRETE (German : abstrakt; konkret) are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents. They are most commonly used in philosophy and semantics . Abstract objects are sometimes called ABSTRACTA (sing. ABSTRACTUM) and concrete objects are sometimes called CONCRETA (sing. CONCRETUM). An ABSTRACT OBJECT is an object which does not exist at any particular time or place, but rather exists as a type of thing, i.e., an idea , or abstraction . The term 'abstract object' is said to have been coined by Willard Van Orman Quine . The study of abstract objects is called abstract object theory . CONTENTS* 1 In philosophy * 1.1 Abstract objects and causality * 2 Concrete and abstract thinking * 3 Quasi-abstract entities * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links IN PHILOSOPHYThe type–token distinction identifies physical objects that are tokens of a particular type of thing. The "type" that it is a part of, is in itself an abstract object
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Meaningless Statement
A MEANINGLESS STATEMENT posits nothing of substance with which one could agree or disagree. In the context of logical arguments , the inclusion of a meaningless statement in the premises will undermine the validity of the argument since that premise can neither be true nor false. There are many classes of meaningless statement: * A statement may be considered meaningless if it asserts that two categories are disjoint without proposing a criterion to distinguish between them. For example, the claim, "I wouldn't know how pornography differs from erotica " is a distinction without a difference . * A statement may be meaningless if its terms are undefined, or if it contains unbound variables. For instance, the sentence "All X have Y" is meaningless unless the terms X and Y are defined (or bound). * A grammatically correct sentence may be meaningless if it ascribes properties to particulars which admit of no such properties. For example, the famous sentence " Colorless green ideas sleep furiously
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously
" cannot be taken literally. * An ungrammatical sentence admits of no meaning. For instance, the string of words "deities Olympus Greek reside The
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Stanisław Leśniewski
STANISłAW LEśNIEWSKI (March 30, 1886 – May 13, 1939) was a Polish mathematician , philosopher and logician . Leśniewski went to a high school in Irkutsk
Irkutsk
. Later he attended lectures by Hans Cornelius at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and lectures by Wacław Sierpiński at the Lviv University . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links LIFELeśniewski belonged to the first generation of the Lwów-Warsaw School of logic founded by Kazimierz Twardowski . Together with Alfred Tarski and Jan Łukasiewicz , he formed the troika, which made the University of Warsaw
Warsaw
, during the Interbellum , perhaps the most important research center in the world for formal logic . His main contribution was the construction of three nested formal systems , to which he gave the Greek-derived names of protothetic, ontology, and mereology . ("Calculus of names" is sometimes used instead of ontology , a term widely employed in metaphysics in a very different sense.) A good textbook presentation of these systems is Simons (1987), who compares and contrasts them with the variants of mereology , more popular nowadays, descending from the calculus of individuals of Leonard and Goodman
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Fallacy
A FALLACY is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning , or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument . A fallacious argument may be deceptive by appearing to be better than it really is. Some fallacies are committed intentionally to manipulate or persuade by deception , while others are committed unintentionally due to carelessness or ignorance. Lawyers acknowledge that the extent to which an argument is sound or unsound depends on the context in which the argument is made. Fallacies are commonly divided into "formal" and "informal". A formal fallacy can be expressed neatly in a standard system of logic, such as propositional logic , while an informal fallacy originates in an error in reasoning other than an improper logical form. Arguments containing informal fallacies may be formally valid, but still fallacious
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Principia Mathematica
The PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics , written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913. In 1925–27, it appeared in a second edition with an important Introduction to the Second Edition, an Appendix A that replaced ✸9 and all-new Appendix B and Appendix C. PM was an attempt to describe a set of axioms and inference rules in symbolic logic from which all mathematical truths could in principle be proven. As such, this ambitious project is of great importance in the history of mathematics and philosophy, being one of the foremost products of the belief that such an undertaking may be achievable. However, in 1931, Gödel\'s incompleteness theorem proved definitively that PM, and in fact any other attempt, could never achieve this lofty goal; that is, for any set of axioms and inference rules proposed to encapsulate mathematics, either the system must be inconsistent, or there must in fact be some truths of mathematics which could not be deduced from them. One of the main inspirations and motivations for PM was the earlier work of Gottlob Frege on logic, which Russell discovered allowed for the construction of paradoxical sets . PM sought to avoid this problem by ruling out the unrestricted creation of arbitrary sets
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