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Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria
Syria
and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.[1] After the Arab
Arab
Islamic conquest of the mid-7th century AD the region has been known by the traditional Arabic
Arabic
name of al-Jazira (Arabic: الجزيرة‎ "the island"), also transliterated Djazirah, Djezirah, Jazirah & the Syriac (Aramaic) variant Gazerṯo or Gozarto (ܓܙܪܬܐ)
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Breadbasket
The breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil and/or advantageous climate, produces large quantities of wheat or other grain
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Sinjar
Sinjar, also known as Shingal[2] (Kurdish: Şengal/Şingal/Şingar/شنگار/ شنگال‎[3][4][5][6], Ancient: Singara) is a town in Shingal District, Nineveh Province, Iraq
Iraq
near Mount Shingal. Its population in 2013 was estimated at 88,023.[7] The important Chermera temple (meaning '40 Men') is found on the highest peak of the Sinjar
Sinjar
Mountains.Contents1 History 2 Northern Iraq
Iraq
Offensive (2014) 3 Autonomy 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit]A map of the "Jazira"'s provinces in medieval times.In the 2nd century A.D., Sinjar
Sinjar
became a military base and part of the Roman limes, and it remained part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until it was sacked by the Sassanids in 360 A.D. At the beginning of 6th century A.D., it was inhabited by a tribe called Qadišaiē (Kαδίσηυοι)
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Sawād
Sawad was the name used in early Islamic times (7th–12th centuries) for southern Iraq. It means "black land" and refers to the stark contrast between the alluvial plain of Mesopotamia and the Arabian desert. Under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, it was an official political term for a province encompassing most of modern Iraq (except for the western desert and al-Jazira in the north). As a generic term, it was used to denote the irrigated and cultivated areas in any district, in Arabic and Persian. Sources[edit]Schaeder, H.H. (1997). "Sawād". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P.; Lecomte, G. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IX: San–Sze. Leiden: E. J. Brill
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Sinjar Mountains
The Sinjar
Sinjar
Mountains[1][2] (Kurdish: Çiyayên Şengalê چیای شەنگال/شەنگار‎; Arabic: جبل سنجار‎ jabal Sinjār; also ShingalShengar Mountains) are a 100-kilometre-long (62 mi) mountain range that runs east to west, rising above the surrounding alluvial steppe plains in northwestern Iraq
Iraq
to an elevation of 1,463 meters (4,800 ft). The highest segment of these mountains, about 75 km (47 mi) long, lies in Nineveh Governorate. The western and lower segment of these mountains lies in Syria which is about 25 km (16 mi) long and controlled by the de facto autonomous Syrian Kurdistan
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Adiabene
- - - - - - - - - - - -Monobaz II •  ? - 116 MeharaspesHistorical era Antiquity •  Established 15 •  Disestablished 116Preceded by Succeeded byParthian EmpireRoman EmpireThis article is part of the series on theHistory of the Assyrian peopleEarly History Early Assyrian Period
Early Assyrian Period
(2600 BCE – 2025 BCE) Old Assyrian Empire
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Alluvial Plain
An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms. A floodplain is part of the process, being the smaller area over which the rivers flood at a particular period of time, whereas the alluvial plain is the larger area representing the region over which the floodplains have shifted over geological time. As the highlands erode due to weathering and water flow, the sediment from the hills is transported to the lower plain. Various creeks will carry the water further to a river, lake, bay, or ocean. As the sediments are deposited during flood conditions in the floodplain of a creek, the elevation of the floodplain will be raised. As this reduces the channel floodwater capacity, the creek will, over time, seek new, lower paths, forming a meander (a curving sinuous path)
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Raqqa
Raqqa
Raqqa
(Arabic: الرقة‎ ar-Raqqah; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria
Syria
located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River, about 160 kilometres (99 miles) east of Aleppo. It is located 40 kilometres (25 miles) east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine city and bishopric Callinicum (formerly a Latin—and now a Maronite Catholic titular see) was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
between 796 and 809, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, Raqqa
Raqqa
was the sixth largest city in Syria.[3] During the Syrian Civil War, the city was captured in 2013 by the Syrian opposition
Syrian opposition
and then by the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant
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Deir Ez-Zor
Deir ez-Zor
Deir ez-Zor
(Arabic: دير الزور‎ Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria
Syria
and the seventh largest in the country. Located 450 km (280 mi) to the northeast of the capital Damascus
Damascus
on the shores of the Euphrates
Euphrates
River, Deir ez-Zor
Deir ez-Zor
is the capital of the Deir ez-Zor
Deir ez-Zor
Governorate.[2] In the 2004 census, it had a population of 211,857 people.Contents1 Names 2 History 3 Climate 4 Economy 5 Culture 6 International relations6.1 Twin cities7 Notable people 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksNames[edit] Among Syrians and neighbouring regions, Ad-Deir is used for short to indicate Deir ez Zor
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Salt Pan (geology)
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun. They are found in deserts, and are natural formations (unlike salt evaporation ponds, which are artificial).Contents1 Overview 2 Examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] A salt pan forms by evaporation of a water pool such as a lake or pond. This happens in climates where the rate of water evaporation exceeds the rate of precipitation, that is, in a desert. If the water cannot drain into the ground, it remains on the surface until it evaporates, leaving behind minerals precipitated from the salt ions dissolved in the water. Over thousands of years, the minerals (usually salts) accumulate on the surface.[citation needed] These minerals reflect the sun's rays (through radiation) and often appear as white areas. Salt
Salt
pans can be dangerous. The crust of salt can conceal a quagmire of mud that can engulf a truck
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Sabkhat Al-Jabbul
Sabkhat al-Jabbūl or Mamlahat al-Jabbūl[1] or Lake Jabbūl (Arabic: سبخة الجبول‎) is a large, traditionally seasonal, saline lake and concurrent salt flats 30 km southeast of Aleppo, Syria, in the Bāb District of Aleppo
Aleppo
Governorate. It is the largest natural lake in Syria
Syria
and the second largest lake after the artificial Lake Assad. In 2009 the lake covered about 100 km2 (39 sq mi) and was relatively stable.[2] The salt flats are extensive and can be seen from space. The area includes the Sabkhat al-Jabbul Nature Reserve, a protected waterfowl site.[3]Shallow parts of the lake go dry in August leaving salt crystals on the floorToday the Sabkhat al-Jabbul
Sabkhat al-Jabbul
exists within a closed basin, but during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
the basin filled, overflowed and formed a tributary of the Euphrates
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Hit, Iraq
Hīt, also spelled Heet (Arabic: هيت‎), ancient name Is, is an Iraqi city in Al-Anbar province. Hīt lies northwest of Ramadi, the provincial capital. On the Euphrates River, Hīt is a small walled town built on two mounds on the site of the ancient city of Is. In ancient times, the town was known for its bitumen wells, which were used as far back as 3,000 years ago, to include building of Babylon and for caulking boats. Hīt also became a frontier fortress for Assyria. Now, Hīt is a marketplace for agricultural produce and oil pipelines to the Mediterranean Sea cross the Euphrates there. It was regarded as the head of navigation on the river before the decline in river traffic.[1] In October 2014, the city had fallen to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, but was recaptured after a military offensive by the Iraqi Army in April 2016.[2][3] Climate[edit] In Hīt, there is a desert climate. Most rain falls in the winter. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is BWh
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Samarra
Coordinates: 34°11′54″N 43°52′27″E / 34.19833°N 43.87417°E / 34.19833; 43.87417Samarra سامَرّاءCityThe spiral minaret of the Great Mosque of SamarraSamarraLocation of Samarra
Samarra
within IraqCoordinates: 34°11′54″N 43°52′27″E / 34.19833°N 43.87417°E / 34.19833; 43.87417Country  IraqGovernorate Saladin GovernoratePopulation (2003 est) • Total 348,700 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage SiteOfficial name Samarra
Samarra
Archaeological CityCriteria Cultural: ii, iii, ivReference 276Inscription 2007 (31st Session)Endangered 2007-Area 15,058 haBuffer zone 31,414 haSāmarrā (Arabic: سامَرّاء‎) is a city in Iraq. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris
Tigris
in the Saladin Governorate, 125 kilometers (78 mi) north of Baghdad. In 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700
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Basra
Basra
Basra
(Arabic: البصرة‎ al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
between Kuwait
Kuwait
and Iran. It had an estimated population of 2.5 million in 2012.[2] Basra
Basra
is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr. The city is part of the historic location of Sumer, one of the ports from which Sinbad the Sailor
Sinbad the Sailor
journeyed.[citation needed] It played an important role in early Islamic history
Islamic history
and was built in 636 (14 AH). Basra
Basra
is consistently one of the hottest cities in Iraq, with summer temperatures regularly exceeding 50 °C (122 °F)
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Basra Governorate
Basra
Basra
Governorate (Arabic: محافظة البصرة‎‎ Muḥāfaẓa al-Baṣra) (or Basra
Basra
Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait
Kuwait
to the south and Iran
Iran
to the east. The capital is the city of Basra
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Empty Quarter
Coordinates: 20°N 50°E / 20°N 50°E / 20; 50Rub' al-Khali (الربع الخالي)sand desertSand dunes in the Rub' al Khali.Name origin: "Empty Quarter" in ArabicCountries Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, YemenLength 1,000 km (621 mi)Width 500 km (311 mi)Area 650,000 km2 (250,966 sq mi)Location of the empty quarter in Arabia.The Rub' al Khali desert [note 1] (Arabic: الربع الخالي‎, i.e., "the Empty Quarter") is the largest contiguous sand desert (erg) in the world,[1] encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. The desert covers some 650,000 km2 (250,000 sq mi) (the area of long. 44°30′−56°30′E, and lat
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