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Upper House
An upper house, sometimes called a senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.[1] The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house
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Legislature
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators
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Executive Branch
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations. In the Westminster political system, the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Councillor
A Councillor is a member of a local government council.Contents1 United Kingdom1.1 Remuneration 1.2 Regional government2 United States 3 The Philippines 4 Finland 5 Turkey 6 Other countries 7 ReferencesUnited Kingdom[edit] All local authorities in the United Kingdom are overseen by elected councillors. These include:unitary authorities county councils and district councils parish, town and community councils The Common Council of the City of London
Common Council of the City of London
(in which councillors are known as aldermen and councilmen)According to Debrett's Correct Form the English title "Councillor" (often shortened to ‘Cllr’) applies only to elected members of city, borough or district councils.[1] However, there is no legal basis for this restriction and in practice the title is applied to all councillors at all levels of local government
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The Estates
The Estates or the States (French: États, German: Landstände, Dutch: Staten) was the assembly of the representatives of the estates of the realm, the divisions of society in feudal times, called together for purposes of deliberation, legislation or taxation
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Chambers Of Parliament
A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers.[1] Legislatures are usually unicameral, consisting of only one chamber, or bicameral, consisting of two, but there are rare examples of tricameral and tetracameral legislatures.Contents1 Bicameralism 2 Merging of chambers 3 Floor and committee 4 Security 5 References 6 See alsoBicameralism[edit] The lower house is almost always the originator of legislation, and the upper house is the body that offers the "second look" and decides whether to veto or approve the bills. In the United Kingdom legislation can be originated in either house, but the lower house can ultimately prevail if the two houses repeatedly disagree
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Presidential System
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment. The title "president" has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President
President
of the Continental Congress in the early United States, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative
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Advice And Consent
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts
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Impeachments
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government. Impeachment does not necessarily mean removal from office; it is only a formal statement of charges, akin to an indictment in criminal law, and is thus only the first step towards removal. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must then face the possibility of conviction via legislative vote, which then entails the removal of the individual from office. Because impeachment and conviction of officials involve an overturning of the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office (election, ratification, or appointment) and because it generally requires a supermajority, they are usually reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office
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Proportional Representation
Proportional representation
Proportional representation
(PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.[1] If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party.[2] The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result: not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them
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Member Of Congress
A Member of Congress
Congress
(MOC) is a person who has been appointed or elected and inducted into an official body called a congress, typically to represent a particular constituency in a legislature. Member of Parliament
Parliament
(MP) is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions. United States[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)In referring to a lawmaker in their capacity of serving in Congress the term Member of Congress
Congress
is used less often than other terms in the United States
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Administrative Division
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration. Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments. Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces, which, in turn, are divided into counties, which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories, with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control
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Legislative Seat
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators
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Age Of Candidacy
Age of candidacy
Age of candidacy
is the minimum age at which a person can legally qualify to hold certain elected government offices
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Palais Du Luxembourg
The Luxembourg Palace (French: Palais du Luxembourg, pronounced [pa.lɛ dy lyk.sɑ̃.buːʁ]) is located at 15 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. It was originally built (1615–1645) to the designs of the French architect Salomon de Brosse to be the royal residence of the regent Marie de' Medici, mother of Louis XIII of France. After the Revolution it was refashioned (1799–1805) by Jean Chalgrin into a legislative building and subsequently greatly enlarged and remodeled (1835–1856) by Alphonse de Gisors. Since 1958 it has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.[2] Immediately west of the palace on the rue de Vaugirard is the Petit Luxembourg, now the residence of the Senate President; and slightly further west, the Musée du Luxembourg, in the former orangery
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Veto
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation. A veto can be absolute, as for instance in the United Nations Security Council, whose permanent members (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States of America) can block any resolution, or it can be limited, as in the legislative process of the United States, where a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate may override a Presidential veto of legislation.[1] A veto may give power only to stop changes (thus allowing its holder to protect the status quo), like the US legislative veto mentioned before, or to also adopt them (an "amendatory veto"), like the legislative veto of the Indian President, which allows him to propose amendments to bills returned to the Parliament for reconsideration. The concept of a veto body originated with the Roman consuls and tribunes
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