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University Of Vienna
The University of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna
Vienna
has developed into one of the largest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, especially in the Humanities
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Anschluss
Anschluss
Anschluss
(German: [ˈʔanʃlʊs] ( listen) 'joining') refers to the annexation of Austria
Austria
into
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Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1558, king of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
from 1526, and king of Croatia
Croatia
from 1527 until his death.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany
Germany
and developed useful relationships with German princes. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary
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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV., German: Karl IV., Latin: Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378[1]), born Wenceslaus,[2] was a King of Bohemia
Bohemia
and the first King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
to also become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg
House of Luxembourg
from his father's side and the House of Přemyslid
House of Přemyslid
from his mother's side, which he emphasised, because it gave him two saints as direct ancestors. He was the eldest son and heir of King John of Bohemia, who died at the Battle of Crécy
Battle of Crécy
on 26 August 1346. His mother, Elizabeth of Bohemia, was the sister of King Wenceslas III, the last of the male Přemyslid rulers of Bohemia. Charles inherited the County of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
from his father and was elected king of the Kingdom of Bohemia
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and continued until its dissolution in 1806.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
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Humanism
Humanism
Humanism
is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it.[1] The term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature ("classical humanism")
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Rector (academia)
A rector ("ruler", from Latin: regerre and rector meaning "ruler") is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world
English-speaking world
the rector is often the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States
United States
the most senior official is often referred to as President and in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is primarily ceremonial and titular. The term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate
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Magister (degree)
A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from Latin: magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education. The magister degree arose in mediaeval universities in Europe and was originally equal to the doctorate; while the doctorate was originally conferred in theology, law and medicine, the magister degree was usually conferred in the arts.[1] In some countries, the title has retained this original meaning until the modern age, while in other countries, magister has become the title of a lower degree, in some cases parallel with a master's degree (whose name is cognate).Contents1 South America 2 Egypt 3 Central Europe and Eastern Europe 4 Germany
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Doctor (title)
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.[1] The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb docēre [dɔˈkeːrɛ] 'to teach'. It has been used as an academic title in Europe since the 13th century, when the first doctorates were awarded at the University of Bologna
University of Bologna
and the University
University
of Paris. Having become established in European universities, this usage spread around the world. Contracted "Dr" or "Dr.", it is used as a designation for a person who has obtained a Doctorate
Doctorate
(e.g. PhD)
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Nation (university)
Student
Student
nations or simply nations (Latin: natio meaning "being born"[1][2]) are regional corporations of students at a university. Once widespread across Europe
Europe
in medieval times, they are now largely restricted to the oldest universities of Sweden and Finland, in part because of the violent conflicts between the nations in university towns in other countries. Medieval universities were large metropolitan centres with students from many different domestic and foreign regions. Students who were born within the same region usually spoke the same language, expected to be ruled by their own familiar laws, and therefore joined together to form the nations. The most similar comparison in the Anglo-world to the nation system is in the collegiate system of older British universities or fraternities at American universities; however, both of these comparisons are imperfect
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Reformation
The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses
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Siege Of Vienna
MediterraneanCephalonia (1500) Balearics (1501) Pantelleria (1515) Algiers (1516) Tlemcen (1517) Algiers (1529) Formentera (1529) Coron (1532-34) Tunis (1535) Mahón (1535) Preveza (1538) Castelnuovo (1539) Girolata (1540) Alborán (1540) Algiers (1541) Nice (1543) Mahdiye (1550) Gozo (1551) Tripoli (1551) Ponza (1552) Corsica (1553-59) Bougie (1555) Oran (1556) Balearics (1558) Mostaganem (1558) Djerba (1560) Orán and Mers-el-Kébir (1563) Vélez de la Gomera (1564) Malta (1565) Lepanto (1571) Tunis (1574) Fez (1576) Cape Corvo (1613) Żejtun (1614) Cape Celidonia (1616)The Siege of Vienna
Vienna
in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria
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Jesuit Order
The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(SJ – from Latin: Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits.[2] The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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University Of Paris
A university (Latin: universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines
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Ferdinand II Of Austria
Ferdinand II, Archduke
Archduke
of Further Austria
Austria
(Linz, 14 June 1529 – 24 January 1595, Innsbruck) was ruler of Further Austria
Austria
including Tirol. The son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, he was married to Philippine Welser
Philippine Welser
in his first marriage
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Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
Walburga Amalia Christina[1] (German: Maria Theresia [maˈʁiːa teˈʁeːzi̯a]; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
and Holy Roman Empress.[2] She started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740
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