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Units Of Measurement
A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.[1] Any other quantity of that kind can be expressed as a multiple of the unit of measurement. For example, a length is a physical quantity. The metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres (or 10 m), we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called "metre". Measurement
Measurement
is a process of determining how large or small a physical quantity is as compared to a basic reference quantity of the same kind. The definition, agreement, and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to the present
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Psychometrics
Psychometrics
Psychometrics
is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement. As defined by the National Council on Measurement
Measurement
in Education (NCME), psychometrics refers to psychological measurement. Generally, it refers to the field in psychology and education that is devoted to testing, measurement, assessment, and related activities.[1] The field is concerned with the objective measurement of skills and knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational achievement. Some psychometric researchers focus on the construction and validation of assessment instruments such as questionnaires, tests, raters' judgments, and personality tests. Others focus on research relating to measurement theory (e.g., item response theory; intraclass correlation). Practitioners are described as psychometricians
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Reproducibility
Reproducibility
Reproducibility
is the ability to get the same research results or inferences, based on the raw data and computer programs provided by researchers. A related concept is replicability, meaning the ability to independently achieve non identical conclusions that are at least similar, when differences in sampling, research procedures and data analysis methods may exist.[1] Reproducibility
Reproducibility
and replicability together are among the main beliefs of 'the scientific method'—with the concrete expressions of the ideal/idea of such a method varying considerably across research disciplines and fields of study [2]. The values obtained from distinct experimental trials are said to be commensurate if they are obtained according to the same reproducible experimental description and procedure
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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3rd Millennium BC
The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze
Bronze
Age, in which imperialism, or the desire to conquer, grew to prominence in the city-states of the Middle East
Middle East
and throughout Eurasia. The civilization of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
rose to a peak with the Old Kingdom. World population
World population
is estimated to have doubled in the course of the millennium, to some 30 million people.Contents1 Overview 2 Events 3 Environmental changes 4 Significant people 5 Cultures 6 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 7 Cultural landmarks 8 Centuries 9 ReferencesOverview[edit] Bronze
Bronze
Agev t e↑ Chalcolithic Near East
Near East
(c
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4th Millennium BC
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC. Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history. Monte d'Accoddi
Monte d'Accoddi
is an archaeological site in northern Sardinia, Italy, located in the territory of Sassari
Sassari
near Porto Torres. 4th millennium BC.The city states of Sumer
Sumer
and the kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture
Agriculture
spread widely across Eurasia
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Elam
Elam (/ˈiːləm/) (Elamite: 𒁹𒄬𒆷𒁶𒋾, haltamti,Sumerian: 𒉏𒈠𒆠, NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East.[1] In classical literature, Elam was also known as Susiana, which is a name derived from its capital, Susa.[2] Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age)
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Theory Of Conjoint Measurement
The theory of conjoint measurement (also known as conjoint measurement or additive conjoint measurement) is a general, formal theory of continuous quantity. It was independently discovered by the French economist Gérard Debreu
Gérard Debreu
(1960) and by the American mathematical psychologist R. Duncan Luce and statistician John Tukey
John Tukey
(Luce & Tukey 1964). The theory concerns the situation where at least two natural attributes, A and X, non-interactively relate to a third attribute, P. It is not required that A, X or P are known to be quantities. Via specific relations between the levels of P, it can be established that P, A and X are continuous quantities. Hence the theory of conjoint measurement can be used to quantify attributes in empirical circumstances where it is not possible to combine the levels of the attributes using a side-by-side operation or concatenation
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Weights And Measures (other)
Weights and measures
Weights and measures
are units of measurement subject to governmental regulation, to ensure fairness and transparency. Weights and Measures may also refer to:Various Weights and Measures Acts The International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the international standards organisation and its subsidiaryInternational Committee for Weights and Measures, the 18-member core group that meets every year and General Conference on Weights and Measures, a larger group that meets only every four to six yearsWeights and Measures (Spirit of the West album), 1997 Weights & Mea
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Social Sciences
Social science
Social science
is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a social science. The social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, economics, history, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science , psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century. A more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences can be found at Outline of social science. Positivist
Positivist
social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Problem Solving
CognitionConcept Reasoning Decision making Problem solvingNumerical cognitionNumerosity adaptation effect Approximate number system Parallel individuation systemv t eNeuropsychologyTopics Brain
Brain
regions Clinical neuropsychology Cognitive
Cognitive
neuropsychology Cognitive
Cognitive
neuroscience Dementia Human brain Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology Neuropsychological assessment Neuropsychological rehabilitation Traumatic brain injury Brain
Brain
functionsArousal Attention Consciousness Decision making Executive functions Natural language Learning Memory Motor coordination Perception Planning Problem solving ThoughtPeopleArthur L. Benton David Bohm Antonio Damasio Phineas Gage Norman Geschwind Elkhonon Goldberg Patricia Goldman-Rakic Pasko Rakic Donald O. Hebb Kenneth Heilman Edith Kaplan Muriel Lezak Benjamin Libet Rodolfo Llinás Alexander Luria Brenda Milner Karl H
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Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application
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Medicine
Medicine
Medicine
is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.[1] Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture
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Science
Science
Science
(from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge")[2][3]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[a] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics
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Bible
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Bible
Bible
(from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books")[1] is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews
Jews
and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible
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