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Units Of Measurement
A UNIT OF MEASUREMENT is a definite magnitude of a quantity , defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same quantity. Any other value of that quantity can be expressed as a simple multiple of the unit of measurement. For example, length is a physical quantity . The metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres (or 10 m), we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called "metre". The definition, agreement, and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. Different systems of units used to be very common. Now there is a global standard, the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), the modern form of the metric system . In trade, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES is often a subject of governmental regulation, to ensure fairness and transparency
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3rd Millennium BC
The 3RD MILLENNIUM BC spans the years 3000 through 2000 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, in which imperialism , or the desire to conquer, grew to prominence in the city-states of the Middle East
Middle East
and throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
. The civilization of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
rose to a peak with the Old Kingdom . World population
World population
is estimated to have doubled in the course of the millennium, to some 30 million people
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Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/ , Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; Arabic
Arabic
: بلاد الرافدين‎‎ bilād ar-rāfidayn; Kurdish : میزۆپۆتامیا‎; Persian : میان‌رودان‎‎ miyān rudān; Syriac : ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ‎ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") was a historical region situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system
Tigris–Euphrates river system
, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq
Iraq
plus Kuwait
Kuwait
, the eastern parts of Syria
Syria
, Southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders . The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c
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Ancient Egypt
arsenical bronze writing , literature sword , chariot ↓ Iron Age ANCIENT EGYPT was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
Egypt
. It is one of six historic civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt
Egypt
and coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology ) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
under the first pharaoh , Narmer
Narmer
(commonly referred to as Menes
Menes
)
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4th Millennium BC
The 4TH MILLENNIUM BC spans the years 4000 through 3000 BC. Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing , which played a major role in starting recorded history . Monte d\'Accoddi is an archaeological site in northern Sardinia , Italy
Italy
, located in the territory of Sassari
Sassari
near Porto Torres . 4th millennium BC. The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture
Agriculture
spread widely across Eurasia . World population
World population
in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people
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Theory Of Conjoint Measurement
The THEORY OF CONJOINT MEASUREMENT (also known as CONJOINT MEASUREMENT or ADDITIVE CONJOINT MEASUREMENT) is a general, formal theory of continuous quantity . It was independently discovered by the French economist Gérard Debreu (1960) and by the American mathematical psychologist R. Duncan Luce and statistician John Tukey (Luce & Tukey 1964 ). The theory concerns the situation where at least two natural attributes, A and X, non-interactively relate to a third attribute, P. It is not required that A, X or P are known to be quantities. Via specific relations between the levels of P, it can be established that P, A and X are continuous quantities. Hence the theory of conjoint measurement can be used to quantify attributes in empirical circumstances where it is not possible to combine the levels of the attributes using a side-by-side operation or concatenation
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Engineering
ENGINEERING is the application of mathematics , as well as scientific , economic , social, and practical knowledge in order to invent , innovate , design , build, maintain , research , and improve structures , machines , tools , systems , components , materials , processes , solutions, and organizations . The discipline of engineering is extremely broad and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering , each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied science, technology and types of application. The term Engineering
Engineering
is derived from the Latin
Latin
ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise"
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Problem Solving
Cognition
Cognition
* Concept
Concept
* Reasoning
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Social Sciences
SOCIAL SCIENCE is a major category of academic disciplines , concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a "social science". The social sciences include economics , political science , human geography , demography , psychology , sociology , anthropology , archaeology , jurisprudence , history, and linguistics . The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original 'science of society', established in the 19th century. A more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences can be found at Outline of social science . Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense
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Indus Valley Civilisation
The INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION (IVC) was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia , extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Pakistan
Pakistan
and northwest India
India
. Along with ancient Egypt
Egypt
and Mesopotamia it was one of three earliest civilisations of the world and included among the civilisations of the Old World
Old World
, and of the three, the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River
Indus River
, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar- Hakra
Hakra
river in northwest India
India
and eastern Pakistan
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Elam
ELAM (/ˈiːləm/ ) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far West and Southwest of what is now modern-day Iran
Iran
, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan
Khuzestan
and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq
Iraq
. The modern name Elam
Elam
stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian
Akkadian
elamtu, and the Elamite
Elamite
haltamti. Elamite
Elamite
states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East . In classical literature , Elam
Elam
was also known as SUSIANA, which is a name derived from its capital, Susa
Susa
. Elam
Elam
was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age)
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS (formerly the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH), also known as simply THE COMMONWEALTH, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire
British Empire
. The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations , organised through the Commonwealth Foundation
Commonwealth Foundation
. The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire
British Empire
through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "free and equal"
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British Empire
The BRITISH EMPIRE comprised the dominions , colonies , protectorates , mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England
England
between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power . By 1913, the British Empire
Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal , linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (République française ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France
France
is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris
Paris
, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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