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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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UK (other)
The UK is the United Kingdom, a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of continental Europe. UK or UK may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Arts and media * 2 Educational institutions * 3 Language * 4 Places * 5 Other uses * 6 See also ARTS AND MEDIA* U.K. (band) , a progressive rock supergroup * U.K. (album) , by U.K. * Universiteitskrant , a newspaper * UK Records , a record labelEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS * University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
, United States * Kongo University (l’Université Kongo), DR Congo * Comenius University in Bratislava
Comenius University in Bratislava
(Univerzita Komenského), Slovakia * Universidad Argentina John F
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a senate , is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the United Kingdom's House of Lords
House of Lords
, India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad
Seanad
, Malaysia's Dewan Negara , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate
Senate

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Unitary State
A UNITARY STATE is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states , 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute , the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers
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Irish Language
The IRISH LANGUAGE (Gaeilge), also referred to as the GAELIC or the IRISH GAELIC LANGUAGE, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people
Irish people
. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe
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Ulster Scots Dialects
ULSTER SCOTS or ULSTER-SCOTS (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as ULLANS, is the Scots language
Scots language
as spoken in parts of Ulster
Ulster
in Ireland . It is generally considered a dialect or group of dialects of Scots, although groups such as the Ulster-Scots Language Society and Ulster-Scots Academy consider it a language in its own right, and the Ulster-Scots Agency and former Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure have used the terminology ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE. Some definitions of Ulster
Ulster
Scots may also include Standard English spoken with an Ulster
Ulster
Scots accent. This is a situation like that of Lowland Scots and Scottish Standard English with words pronounced using the Ulster
Ulster
Scots phonemes closest to those of Standard English
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Welsh Language
'Cymraeg' pronounced REGION Spoken throughout Wales, and in Chubut province of Argentina NATIVE SPEAKERS All UK speakers : 700,000+ (2012) * Wales
Wales
: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales), (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users (reference) * England
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English Language
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and Spanish , as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language . Named after the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain
Great Britain
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is closely related to the other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
of Frisian , Low German/Low Saxon , German , Dutch , and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
. The English vocabulary has been significantly influenced by French (a Romance language ), Norse (a North Germanic language ), and by Latin
Latin

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Cornish Language
CORNISH (Kernowek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language . The last first language native speakers died in the late 18th century . There are currently efforts being made to revive the language which is considered by some people to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. Cornish is currently a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , and has a growing number of second language speakers. Along with Welsh and Breton , Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language
English language
came to dominate
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Scots Language
SCOTS is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland
Scotland
and parts of Ulster
Ulster
(where the local dialect is known as Ulster
Ulster
Scots ). It is sometimes called LOWLAND SCOTS to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic , the Celtic language which was historically restricted to most of the Highlands , the Hebrides and Galloway
Galloway
after the 1500s. The Scots language
Scots language
developed during the Middle English
Middle English
period as a distinct entity. As there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing a language from a dialect , scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of Scots and particularly its relationship to English
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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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Scottish Gaelic
SCOTTISH GAELIC or SCOTS GAELIC, sometimes also referred to simply as GAELIC (Gàidhlig ( listen )) or THE GAELIC, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels
Gaels
of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx , developed out of Middle Irish . Most of modern Scotland
Scotland
was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland
Scotland
, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001. The highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides . Only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, there are revival efforts, and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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