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United States Magistrate
In United States federal courts, magistrate judges are judges appointed to assist district court judges in the performance of their duties. Magistrate
Magistrate
judges are authorized by 28 U.S.C. § 631 et seq. The position of "magistrate judge" or "magistrate" also exists in some unrelated state courts (see below). While district judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate
United States Senate
for lifetime tenure, magistrate judges are appointed by a majority vote of the federal district judges of a particular district and serve terms of eight years if full-time, or four years if part-time, and may be reappointed
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Federal Judiciary Of The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Bail
Bail is money or some form of property that is deposited or pledged[clarify] to a court by a suspect, in return for the release from custody or pre-trial detention. If the suspect does not return to court, the bail is forfeited, and the suspect may possibly be brought up on charges of the crime of failure to appear. If the suspect returns to make all their required appearances, bail is returned after the trial is concluded. In some cases, bail money may be returned at the end of the trial, if all court appearances are made, regardless of whether the person is found guilty or not guilty of the crime accused. Bail laws vary from country to country; in the United States, bail practices vary by state. In some countries, granting bail is common. Even in such countries, however, bail may not be offered by some courts under some circumstances. For minor crimes, a defendant may be summoned to court without the need for bail
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Judge
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, functions, method of appointment, discipline, and training of judges vary widely across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and, typically, in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, and then issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury
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United States District Court
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Magistrate
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a magistratus was one of the highest ranking government officers, and possessed both judicial and executive powers. In other parts of the world, such as China, a magistrate was responsible for administration over a particular geographic area. Today, in some jurisdictions, a magistrate is a judicial officer who hears cases in a lower court, and typically deals with more minor or preliminary matters
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President Of The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Advice And Consent
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts
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United States Senate
Majority (50)     Republican (50)Minority (49)     Democratic (47)      Independents (2) caucusing with the DemocratsVacant (1)     Vacant (1)Length of term6 yearsElectionsVoting systemFirst-past-the-post; nonpartisan blanket primary with a majoritarian second round in 3 states.Last electionNovember 8, 2016 (34 seats)Next electionNovember 6, 2018 (33 seats)Meeting placeSenate chamber United States
Unite

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Lifetime Tenure
A life tenure or service during good behaviour is a term of office that lasts for the office holder's lifetime (in some cases subject to mandatory retirement at a specified age), unless the office holder is removed from office for cause under extraordinary circumstances or chooses to resign. Some judges and members of upper chambers (e.g., senators for life) have life tenure. The primary goal of life tenure is to insulate the officeholder from external pressures. Certain heads of state, such as monarchs and Presidents for Life, are also given life tenure. United States federal judges have life tenure once appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. In some cases, life tenure lasts only until a mandatory retirement age. For example, Canadian senators are appointed for life, but are forced to retire at 75
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United States Federal Judicial District
For purposes of the federal judicial system, Congress has divided the United States into judicial districts. There are 94 federal judicial districts, including at least one district in each state, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Three territories of the United States — the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands — have district courts that hear federal cases, including bankruptcy cases.[1] The breakdown of what is in each judicial district is at 28 U.S.C. §§ 81–131. Federal judicial districts have also been established in the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico
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Court Clerk
A court clerk ( British English
British English
clerk to the court; American English clerk of the court or clerk of court) is an officer of the court whose responsibilities include maintaining records of a court. Another duty is to administer oaths to witnesses, jurors, and grand jurors.[1][2]Contents1 United Kingdom1.1 England and Wales 1.2 Scotland2 ReferencesUnited Kingdom[edit] England and Wales[edit] In the magistrates' courts of England and Wales, where the bench will usually have no legal qualifications, the Court
Court
Clerk will be legally qualified
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Professional Association
A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest. The roles of these professional associations have been variously defined: "A group of people in a learned occupation who are entrusted with maintaining control or oversight of the legitimate practice of the occupation;"[1] also a body acting "to safeguard the public interest;"[2] organizations which "represent the interest of the professional practitioners," and so "act to maintain their own privileged and powerful position as a controlling body."[2] Many professional bodies are involved in the development and monitoring of professional educational programs, and the updating of skills, and thus perform professional certification to indicate that a person possesses qualifications in the subject area
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Adequate And Independent State Ground
The adequate and independent state ground doctrine is a doctrine of United States law governing the power of the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
to review judgments entered by state courts.Contents1 Introduction 2 The Doctrine 3 Sample cases 4 ReferencesIntroduction[edit] It is part of the basic framework of the American legal system that the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
is the ultimate arbiter of questions of federal law but the state courts are the ultimate arbiters of the laws of each state. See, e.g., Hortonville Joint School District No. 1. v. Hortonville Education Ass’n, 426 U.S. 482, 488 (1976) (“We are, of course, bound to accept the interpretation of [State] law by the highest court of the State.”)
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Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
(from the Latin
Latin
ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In federations like the United States, areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state, and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area to which such authority applies, e.g. the court has jurisdiction over all of Colorado
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Misdemeanor
A misdemeanor (American English,[1] spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems. Misdemeanors are generally punished less severely than felonies, but theoretically more so than administrative infractions (also known as minor, petty, or summary offences) and regulatory offences
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