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Uncommitted Logic Array
A gate array is an approach to the design and manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) using a prefabricated chip with components that are later interconnected into logic devices (e.g. NAND gates, flip-flops,etc.) according to a custom order by adding metal interconnect layers in the factory. Similar technologies have also been employed to design and manufacture analog, analog-digital, and structured arrays, but, in general, these are not called gate arrays. Gate arrays have also been known as Uncommitted Logic Arrays (ULAs) and semi-custom chips. Design[edit] A gate array is a prefabricated silicon chip with most transistors having no predetermined function. These transistors can be connected by metal layers to form standard NAND or NOR logic gates. These logic gates can then be further interconnected into a complete circuit on the same or later metal layers
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Application-specific Integrated Circuit
An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) /ˈeɪsɪk/, is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 series or the 4000 series. As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 logic gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors, memory blocks including ROM, RAM, EEPROM, flash memory and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC
ASIC
is often termed a SoC (system-on-chip)
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BBC Micro
16–32 KiB (Model A/B) 64–128 KiB (Model B+) 128 KiB (Master) Plus 32–128 KB ROM, expandable to 272 KiBStorage100–800 KB (DFS) 160–1280 KB (ADFS floppy disks) 20 MB (ADFS hard disk)Display PAL/NTSC, UHF/composite/TTL RGBGraphics640×256, 8 colours (various framebuffer modes) 78×75, 8 colours (Teletext)Sound Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
SN76489, 4 channels, mono TMS5220
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Ibm 308x
The IBM
IBM
308X[NB 1] was a line of mainframe computers, the first model of which, the Model 3081 Processor Complex, was introduced November 12, 1980.[1] It consisted of a 3081 Processor Unit with supporting units. Later models in the series were the 3083[2] and the 3084.[3] The 3083 was announced March 31 and the 3084 on September 3, both in 1982. The IBM
IBM
308X line introduced the System/370 Extended Architecture. All three 308X systems, which IBM
IBM
had marketed as "System/370-Compatibles,"[4] were withdrawn August 4, 1987.Contents1 IBM
IBM
30811.1 3081 as successor to 30332 IBM
IBM
3083 3 IBM
IBM
3084 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links7.1 Photos IBM
IBM
3081[edit] The initial 3081 offered, the 3081D, was a 5 MIPS machine. The next offering, the 3081K, was a 7 MIPS machine
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Wilfred Corrigan
Wilfred J. Corrigan is a British engineer and entrepreneur, known for founding and running LSI Logic Corp. He was the chairman and chief executive of LSI for over two decades until 2005, during the earlier part of which he made vital contributions to the company. He was the founder and served twice as chairman of the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA). Wilf is a veteran of Fairchild Semiconductor. He was born in Liverpool, England as the son of a dock worker, graduated with a degree in chemical engineering from the Imperial College of Science before starting his career at Motorola Semiconductor. He later joined Fairchild Semiconductor, rising through the ranks to eventually become president and CEO for five years
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LSI Corporation
LSI Corporation
LSI Corporation
was an American company based in San Jose, California which designed semiconductors and software that accelerate storage and networking in data centers, mobile networks and client computing.[2][3][4] On May 6, 2014, LSI Corporation
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Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
Ltd is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
in Cambridge. It was originally incorporated in 1973 as Westminster Mail Order Ltd, renamed Sinclair Instrument Ltd, then Science of Cambridge
Cambridge
Ltd, then Sinclair Computers Ltd, and finally Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
Ltd in 1975. It remained dormant until 1976, when it was activated with the intention of continuing Sinclair's commercial work from his earlier company Sinclair Radionics, and adopted the name Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
in 1981. In 1980, Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
entered the home computer market with the ZX80 at £99.95, at that time the cheapest personal computer for sale in the United Kingdom
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Sinclair ZX81
The ZX81
ZX81
is a home computer that was produced by Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
and manufactured in Scotland
Scotland
by Timex Corporation. It was launched in the United Kingdom in March 1981 as the successor to Sinclair's ZX80
ZX80
and was designed to be a low-cost introduction to home computing for the general public. It was hugely successful, and more than 1.5 million units were sold before it was discontinued. The ZX81
ZX81
found commercial success in many other countries, notably the United States where it was initially sold as the ZX-81. Timex manufactured and distributed it under licence and enjoyed a substantial but brief boom in sales. Timex later produced its own versions of the ZX81
ZX81
for the US market: the Timex Sinclair 1000
Timex Sinclair 1000
and Timex Sinclair 1500
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Acorn Computers
Acorn Computers
Acorn Computers
Ltd. was a British computer company established in Cambridge, England, in 1978. The company produced a number of computers which were especially popular in the UK, including the Acorn Electron and the Acorn Archimedes. Acorn's BBC Micro
BBC Micro
computer dominated the UK educational computer market during the 1980s.[1] It is more known for its BBC Micro
BBC Micro
model B computer than for its other products. Though the company was broken up into several independent operations in 1998, its legacy includes the development of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) personal computers. One of its operating systems, RISC OS, continues to be developed by RISC OS
RISC OS
Open
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Home Computer
Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM
IBM
PC,[1] and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers
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Ferranti
Ferranti
Ferranti
or Ferranti
Ferranti
International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993. The company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. The firm was known for work in the area of power grid systems and defence electronics. In addition, in 1951 Ferranti
Ferranti
began selling the first commercially available computer, the Ferranti
Ferranti
Mark 1
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IBM PC
The IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM
IBM
PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
hardware platform. It is IBM
IBM
model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM
IBM
Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term personal computer was in use before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more specifically a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products
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List Of Recessions In The United States
There have been as many as 47 recessions in the United States dating back to the Articles of Confederation, and although economists and historians dispute certain 19th-century recessions,[1] the consensus view among economists and historians is that "The cyclical volatility of GNP and unemployment was greater before the Great Depression
Great Depression
than it has been since the end of World War II."[2] Cycles in the country's agricultural production, industrial production, consumption, business investment, and the health of the banking industry contribute to these declines. U.S. recessions have increasingly affected economies on a worldwide scale, especially as countries' economies become more intertwined. The unofficial beginning and ending dates of recessions in the United States have been defined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), an American private nonprofit research organization
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Field-programmable Gate Array
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing – hence "field-programmable". The FPGA configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to that used for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). (Circuit diagrams were previously used to specify the configuration, as they were for ASICs, but this is increasingly rare.)A Spartan FPGA from XilinxFPGAs contain an array of programmable logic blocks, and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired together", like many logic gates that can be inter-wired in different configurations. Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinational functions, or merely simple logic gates like AND and XOR
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Xilinx
Xilinx, Inc. (/ˈzaɪlɪŋks/ ZY-links) is an American technology company, primarily a supplier of programmable logic devices. It is known for inventing the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and as the first semiconductor company with a fabless manufacturing model.[3][4][5] Founded in Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
in 1984, the company is headquartered in San Jose, USA, with additional offices in Longmont, USA; Dublin, Ireland; Singapore; Hyderabad, India; Beijing, China; Shanghai, China; Brisbane, Australia and Tokyo, Japan.[6][7] Major FPGA
FPGA
product families include Virtex (high-performance), Kintex (mid-range) and Artix (low-cost), and Spartan (low-cost) series
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Moore's Law
Moore's law
Moore's law
is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years
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