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Uncommitted Logic Array
A GATE ARRAY or UNCOMMITTED LOGIC ARRAY (ULA) is an approach to the design and manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), using a prefabricated chip with active devices like NAND-gates, that are later interconnected according to a custom order by adding metal layers in the factory. DESIGNA gate array circuit is a prefabricated silicon chip circuit with no particular function, in which transistors , standard NAND or NOR logic gates , and other active devices are placed at regular predefined positions and manufactured on a wafer , usually called a master slice. Creation of a circuit with a specified function is accomplished by adding a final surface layer or layers of metal interconnects to the chips on the master slice late in the manufacturing process, joining these elements to allow the function of the chip to be customized as desired. This layer is analogous to the copper layer(s) of a printed circuit board (PCB)
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Sinclair ZX81
The ZX81 is a home computer produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Scotland by Timex Corporation . It was launched in the United Kingdom in March 1981 as the successor to Sinclair's ZX80 and was designed to be a low-cost introduction to home computing for the general public. It was hugely successful, and more than 1.5 million units were sold before it was discontinued. The ZX81 found commercial success in many other countries, notably the United States, where it was initially sold as the ZX-81. Timex manufactured and distributed it under licence and enjoyed a substantial but brief boom in sales. Timex later produced its own versions of the ZX81 for the US market – the Timex Sinclair 1000 and Timex Sinclair 1500 . Unauthorised clones of the ZX81 were produced in several countries. The ZX81 was designed to be small, simple, and above all cheap, using as few components as possible to keep the cost down
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Acorn Computers
ACORN COMPUTERS LTD. was a British computer company established in Cambridge
Cambridge
, England, in 1978. The company produced a number of computers which were especially popular in the UK , including the Acorn Electron
Acorn Electron
and the Acorn Archimedes . Acorn's BBC Micro
BBC Micro
computer dominated the UK educational computer market during the 1980s. It is more known for its BBC Micro
BBC Micro
model B computer than for its other products. Though the company was broken up into several independent operations in 1998, its legacy includes the development of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) personal computers. One of its operating systems , RISC OS , continues to be developed by RISC OS Open
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Sinclair Research
SINCLAIR RESEARCH LTD is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
in Cambridge
Cambridge
. It was originally incorporated in 1973 as Westminster Mail Order Ltd, renamed Sinclair Instrument Ltd, then Science of Cambridge
Cambridge
Ltd, then Sinclair Computers Ltd, and finally Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
Ltd in 1975. It remained dormant until 1976, when it was activated with the intention of continuing Sinclair's commercial work from his earlier company Sinclair Radionics , and adopted the name Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
in 1981. In 1980, Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
entered the home computer market with the ZX80
ZX80
at £99.95, at that time the cheapest personal computer for sale in the United Kingdom
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Rent's Rule
RENT\'S RULE pertains to the organization of computing logic, specifically the relationship between the number of external signal connections to a logic block (i.e., the number of "pins") with the number of logic gates in the logic block, and has been applied to circuits ranging from small digital circuits to mainframe computers. CONTENTS * 1 E. F. Rent\'s discovery and first publications * 2 Theoretical basis * 3 Special cases and applications * 4 Estimating Rent\'s exponent * 5 Region II of Rent\'s rule * 6 Rentian wirelength estimation * 7 See also * 8 References E. F. RENT\'S DISCOVERY AND FIRST PUBLICATIONSIn the 1960s, E. F. Rent, an IBM employee, found a remarkable trend between the number of pins (terminals, T) at the boundaries of integrated circuit designs at IBM and the number of internal components (g), such as logic gates or standard cells
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Application-specific Integrated Circuit
An APPLICATION-SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (ASIC) /ˈeɪsɪk/ , is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 or the 4000 series
4000 series
. As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors , memory blocks including ROM , RAM
RAM
, EEPROM , flash memory and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC is often termed a SoC (system-on-chip )
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BBC Micro
16–32 KiB (Model A/B) 64–128 KiB (Model B+) 128 KiB (Master) Plus 32–128 KB ROM, expandable to 272 KiB STORAGE100–800 KB (DFS) 160–1280 KB (ADFS floppy disks) 20 MB (ADFS hard disk) DISPLAY PAL
PAL
/ NTSC
NTSC
,
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Home Computer
HOME COMPUTERS were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC
IBM PC
, and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their most common uses were playing video games , but they were also regularly used for word processing , doing homework, and programming
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Complex Programmable Logic Device
A COMPLEX PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC DEVICE (CPLD) is a programmable logic device with complexity between that of PALs and FPGAs , and architectural features of both. The main building block of the CPLD is a macrocell , which contains logic implementing disjunctive normal form expressions and more specialized logic operations. CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 Distinctions * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References FEATURESSome of the CPLD features are in common with PALs : * Non-volatile configuration memory
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Field-programmable Gate Array
A FIELD-PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing – hence "field-programmable ". The FPGA configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to that used for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). (Circuit diagrams were previously used to specify the configuration, as they were for ASICs, but this is increasingly rare.) A Spartan FPGA from Xilinx
Xilinx
FPGAs contain an array of programmable logic blocks , and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired together", like many logic gates that can be inter-wired in different configurations. Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinational functions , or merely simple logic gates like AND and XOR
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IBM PC
The IBM
IBM
PERSONAL COMPUTER, commonly known as the IBM
IBM
PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
hardware platform . It is IBM
IBM
model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM
IBM
Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton, Florida
. The generic term personal computer was in use before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC 's Alto , but because of the success of the IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more specifically a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products
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Ferranti
FERRANTI or FERRANTI INTERNATIONAL PLC was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993 (the Belgian subsidiary lives on as Ferranti
Ferranti
Computer
Computer
Systems and is now part of the Nijkerk Holding). Known primarily for defence electronics , the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index
FTSE 100 Index
. The firm was known for work in the area of power grid systems and defence electronics . In addition, in 1951 Ferranti
Ferranti
began selling the first commercially available computer, the Ferranti Mark 1 . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Beginnings * 1.2 Expansion * 1.3 Defence electronics * 1.4 Industrial electronics * 1.5 Computers * 1.6 Semiconductors * 1.7 Acquisition of International Signal "> Ferranti
Ferranti
steam generating set, c
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Crossbar Switch
In electronics , a CROSSBAR SWITCH (CROSS-POINT SWITCH, MATRIX SWITCH) is a collection of switches arranged in a matrix configuration. A crossbar switch has multiple input and output lines that form a crossed pattern of interconnecting lines between which a connection may be established by closing a switch located at each intersection, the elements of the matrix. Originally, a crossbar switch consisted literally of crossing metal bars that provided the input and output paths. Later implementations achieved the same switching topology in solid state semiconductor chips. The cross-point switch is one of the principal switch architectures, together with a rotary switch , memory switch, and a crossover switch
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Systolic Array
In parallel computer architectures , a SYSTOLIC ARRAY is a homogeneous network of tightly coupled data processing units (DPUs) called cells or nodes . Each node or DPU independently computes a partial result as a function of the data received from its upstream neighbors, stores the result within itself and passes it downstream. Systolic arrays were invented by Richard P. Brent and H. T. Kung , who developed them to compute greatest common divisors of integers and polynomials. They are sometimes classified as multiple-instruction single-data (MISD ) architectures under Flynn\'s taxonomy , but this classification is questionable because a strong argument can be made to distinguish systolic arrays from any of Flynn's four categories: SISD , SIMD , MISD , MIMD , as discussed later in this article. The parallel input data flows through a network of hard-wired processor nodes, which combine, process, merge or sort the input data into a derived result
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Active Device
PASSIVITY is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems . A PASSIVE COMPONENT, depending on field, may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce) energy (thermodynamic passivity), or a component that is incapable of power gain (incremental passivity). A component that is not passive is called an ACTIVE COMPONENT. An electronic circuit consisting entirely of passive components is called a passive circuit (and has the same properties as a passive component). Used out-of-context and without a qualifier, the term PASSIVE is ambiguous. Typically, analog designers use this term to refer to INCREMENTALLY PASSIVE components and systems, while control systems engineers will use this to refer to THERMODYNAMICALLY PASSIVE ones. Systems for which the small signal model is not passive are sometimes called locally active (e.g. transistors and tunnel diodes)
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