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Uncommitted Logic Array
A GATE ARRAY or UNCOMMITTED LOGIC ARRAY (ULA) is an approach to the design and manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), using a prefabricated chip with active devices like NAND-gates, that are later interconnected according to a custom order by adding metal layers in the factory. DESIGNA gate array circuit is a prefabricated silicon chip circuit with no particular function, in which transistors , standard NAND or NOR logic gates , and other active devices are placed at regular predefined positions and manufactured on a wafer , usually called a master slice. Creation of a circuit with a specified function is accomplished by adding a final surface layer or layers of metal interconnects to the chips on the master slice late in the manufacturing process, joining these elements to allow the function of the chip to be customized as desired. This layer is analogous to the copper layer(s) of a printed circuit board (PCB). Gate array master slices are usually prefabricated and stockpiled in large quantities regardless of customer orders. The design and fabrication according to the individual customer specifications may be finished in a shorter time compared with standard cell or full custom design. The gate array approach reduces the mask costs, since fewer custom masks need to be produced
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Application-specific Integrated Circuit
An APPLICATION-SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (ASIC) /ˈeɪsɪk/ , is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 or the 4000 series . As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors , memory blocks including ROM , RAM , EEPROM , flash memory and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC is often termed a SoC (system-on-chip ). Designers of digital ASICs often use a hardware description language (HDL), such as Verilog or VHDL , to describe the functionality of ASICs. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are the modern-day technology for building a breadboard or prototype from standard parts; programmable logic blocks and programmable interconnects allow the same FPGA to be used in many different applications. For smaller designs or lower production volumes, FPGAs may be more cost effective than an ASIC design even in production
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Transistor
A TRANSISTOR is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power . It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits . The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices , and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time. The first practically implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen , Walter Brattain , and William Shockley . The transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios , calculators , and computers , among other things. The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement
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Negated AND Gate
In digital electronics , a NAND GATE (NEGATIVE-AND) is a logic gate which produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that of the AND gate . A LOW (0) output results only if both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1); if one or both inputs are LOW (0), a HIGH (1) output results. It is made using transistors and junction diodes. By De Morgan\'s theorem , AB=A+B, and thus a N AND gate is equivalent to inverters followed by an OR gate . The N AND gate is significant because any boolean function can be implemented by using a combination of NAND gates. This property is called functional completeness . It shares this property with the NOR gate . Digital systems employing certain logic circuits take advantage of NAND's functional completeness. The function NAND(a1, a2, ..., an) is logically equivalent to NOT(a1 AND a2 AND ... AND an). CONTENTS * 1 Symbols * 2 Hardware description and pinout * 3 Implementations * 3.1 Alternatives * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SYMBOLSThere are three symbols for NAND gates: the MIL/ ANSI symbol, the IEC symbol and the deprecated DIN symbol sometimes found on old schematics. For more information see logic gate symbols . The ANSI symbol for the N AND gate is a standard AND gate with an inversion bubble connected
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NOR Gate
The NOR GATE is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it behaves according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if both the inputs to the gate are LOW (0); if one or both input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. NOR is the result of the negation of the OR operator. It can also be seen as an AND gate with all the inputs inverted. NOR is a functionally complete operation—NOR gates can be combined to generate any other logical function. it shares this property with the NAND gate . By contrast, the OR operator is _monotonic_ as it can only change LOW to HIGH but not vice versa. In most, but not all, circuit implementations, the negation comes for free—including CMOS and TTL . In such logic families, OR is the more complicated operation; it may use a NOR followed by a NOT. A significant exception is some forms of the domino logic family. The original Apollo Guidance Computer used 4,100 ICs, each one containing only a single 3-input NOR gate. CONTENTS * 1 Symbols * 2 Hardware description and pinout * 2.1 Availability * 3 Implementations * 3.1 Alternatives * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SYMBOLSThere are three symbols for NOR gates: the American (ANSI or 'military') symbol and the IEC ('European' or 'rectangular') symbol, as well as the deprecated DIN symbol. For more information see Logic Gate Symbols
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Logic Gate
In electronics , a LOGIC GATE is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function ; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an IDEAL LOGIC GATE, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out , or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison). Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches , but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes , electromagnetic relays (relay logic ), fluidic logic , pneumatic logic , optics , molecules , or even mechanical elements. With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic , and therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic. Logic circuits include such devices as multiplexers , registers , arithmetic logic units (ALUs), and computer memory , all the way up through complete microprocessors , which may contain more than 100 million gates. In modern practice, most gates are made from field-effect transistors (FETs), particularly metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs)
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Active Device
PASSIVITY is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems . A PASSIVE COMPONENT, depending on field, may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce) energy (thermodynamic passivity), or a component that is incapable of power gain (incremental passivity). A component that is not passive is called an ACTIVE COMPONENT. An electronic circuit consisting entirely of passive components is called a passive circuit (and has the same properties as a passive component). Used out-of-context and without a qualifier, the term PASSIVE is ambiguous. Typically, analog designers use this term to refer to INCREMENTALLY PASSIVE components and systems, while control systems engineers will use this to refer to THERMODYNAMICALLY PASSIVE ones. Systems for which the small signal model is not passive are sometimes called locally active (e.g. transistors and tunnel diodes). Systems that can generate power about a time-variant unperturbed state are often called parametrically active (e.g. certain types of nonlinear capacitors)
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Wafer (electronics)
A WAFER, also called a SLICE or SUBSTRATE , is a thin slice of semiconductor material , such as a crystalline silicon , used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells . The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation , etching , deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning. Finally the individual microcircuits are separated (dicing ) and packaged . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Formation * 3 Cleaning, texturing and etching * 4 Wafer properties * 4.1 Standard wafer sizes * 4.1.1 Historical increases of wafer size * 4.1.2 Proposed 450 mm transition * 4.2 Analytical die count estimation * 4.3 Crystalline orientation * 4.4 Crystallographic orientation notches * 4.5 Impurity doping * 5 Compound semiconductors * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2015)By 1960, silicon wafers were being manufactured in the U.S. by companies such as MEMC / SunEdison . In 1965, American engineers Eric O. Ernst, Donald J. Hurd, and Gerard Seeley, while working under IBM , filed Patent US3423629A for the first high-capacity epitaxial apparatus
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Printed Circuit Board
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. Components (e.g. capacitors, resistors or active devices) are generally soldered on the PCB. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Conductors on different layers are connected with vias. Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. FR-4 glass epoxy is the primary insulating substrate. A basic building block of the PCB is an FR-4 panel with a thin layer of copper foil laminated to one or both sides. In multi-layer boards multiple layers of material are laminated together. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction
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Standard Cell
In semiconductor design, STANDARD CELL methodology is a method of designing application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) with mostly digital-logic features. Standard cell methodology is an example of design abstraction, whereby a low-level very-large-scale integration ( VLSI ) layout is encapsulated into an abstract logic representation (such as a N AND gate ). Cell-based methodology — the general class to which standard cells belong — makes it possible for one designer to focus on the high-level (logical function) aspect of digital design, while another designer focuses on the implementation (physical) aspect. Along with semiconductor manufacturing advances, standard cell methodology has helped designers scale ASICs from comparatively simple single-function ICs (of several thousand gates), to complex multi-million gate system-on-a-chip (SoC) devices. CONTENTS * 1 Construction of a standard cell * 2 Library * 3 Application of standard cell * 3.1 Synthesis * 3.2 Placement * 4 Routing * 4.1 DRC/LVS * 5 Other cell-based methodologies * 6 Complexity measure * 7 See also * 8 External links CONSTRUCTION OF A STANDARD CELLA standard cell is a group of transistor and interconnect structures that provides a boolean logic function (e.g., AND , OR , XOR , XNOR , inverters) or a storage function (flipflop or latch)
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Full Custom
FULL-CUSTOM design is a methodology for designing integrated circuits by specifying the layout of each individual transistor and the interconnections between them. Alternatives to full-custom design include various forms of semi-custom design, such as the repetition of small transistor subcircuits; one such methodology is the use of standard cell libraries (standard cell libraries are themselves designed using full-custom design techniques). Full-custom design potentially maximizes the performance of the chip, and minimizes its area, but is extremely labor-intensive to implement. Full-custom design is limited to ICs that are to be fabricated in extremely high volumes, notably certain microprocessors and a small number of ASICs . The main factor affecting the design and production of ASICs is the high cost of mask sets and the requisite EDA design tools. The mask sets are required in order to transfer the ASIC designs onto the wafer . REFERENCES * ^ Rajneesh kaswan (1999). The VLSI handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-8593-8 . Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Full_custom additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Photomask
A PHOTOMASK is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. They are commonly used in photolithography . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF) * 3 Pellicles * 4 Leading commercial photomask manufacturers * 5 See also * 6 References OVERVIEW A simulated photomask. The thicker features are the integrated circuit that is desired to be printed on the wafer. The thinner features are assists that do not print themselves, but help the integrated circuit print better out-of-focus. The zig-zag appearance of the photomask is because optical proximity correction was applied to it to create a better print. Lithographic photomasks are typically transparent fused silica blanks covered with a pattern defined with a chrome metal-absorbing film. Photomasks are used at wavelengths of 365 nm , 248 nm, and 193 nm. Photomasks have also been developed for other forms of radiation such as 157 nm, 13.5 nm (EUV ), X-ray , electrons , and ions ; but these require entirely new materials for the substrate and the pattern film. A set of photomasks , each defining a pattern layer in integrated circuit fabrication , is fed into a photolithography stepper or scanner , and individually selected for exposure. In double patterning techniques, a photomask would correspond to a subset of the layer pattern
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Die (integrated Circuit)
A DIE (pronunciation: /dʌɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated. Typically, integrated circuits are produced in large batches on a single wafer of electronic-grade silicon (EGS) or other semiconductor (such as GaAs ) through processes such as photolithography . The wafer is cut (“diced ”) into many pieces, each containing one copy of the circuit. Each of these pieces is called a die. There are three commonly used plural forms: dice, dies, and die. CONTENTS * 1 Images * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links IMAGES* Single NPN bipolar junction transistor die. * Close-up of an RGB
RGB
light-emitting diode , showing the three individual dice. * A small-scale integrated circuit die, with bond wires attached. * A VLSI integrated-circuit die. * Two dice bonded onto one chip carrier . * The "naked" die without chip carrier of a Cell processor. * Intel Xeon E7440 die, mounted on heat spreader. Die is 22×23 mm (506 mm2), and contains 7009190000000000000♠1900000000 transistors
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Structured ASIC Platform
STRUCTURED ASIC is an intermediate technology between ASIC and FPGA , offering high performance, a characteristic of ASIC, and low NRE cost, a characteristic of FPGA. Using Structured ASIC allows products to be introduced quickly to market, to have lower cost and to be designed with ease. In a FPGA, interconnects and logic blocks are programmable after fabrication, offering high flexibility of design and ease of debugging in prototyping. However, the capability of FPGAs to implement large circuits is limited, in both size and speed, due to complexity in programmable routing, and significant space occupied by programming elements, e.g. SRAMs, MUXes. On the other hand, ASIC design flow is expensive. Every different design needs a complete different set of masks. The Structured ASIC is a solution between these two. It has basically the same structure as a FPGA, but being mask-programmable instead of field-programmable, by configuring one or several via layers between metal layers. Every SRAM configuration bit can be replaced by a choice of putting a via or not between metal contacts. A number of commercial vendors have introduced structured ASIC products. They have a wide range of configurability, from a single via layer to 6 metal and 6 via layers. Altera's Hardcopy-II, eASIC's Nextreme are examples of commercial structured ASICs
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Crossbar Switch
In electronics , a CROSSBAR SWITCH (CROSS-POINT SWITCH, MATRIX SWITCH) is a collection of switches arranged in a matrix configuration. A crossbar switch has multiple input and output lines that form a crossed pattern of interconnecting lines between which a connection may be established by closing a switch located at each intersection, the elements of the matrix. Originally, a crossbar switch consisted literally of crossing metal bars that provided the input and output paths. Later implementations achieved the same switching topology in solid state semiconductor chips. The cross-point switch is one of the principal switch architectures, together with a rotary switch , memory switch, and a crossover switch . CONTENTS * 1 General properties * 2 Applications * 3 Implementations * 3.1 Mechanical * 3.2 Electromechanical switching in telephony * 3.3 Instrumentation * 3.4 Telephone
Telephone
exchange * 3.5 Semiconductor * 4 Arbitration * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links GENERAL PROPERTIESA crossbar switch is an assembly of individual switches between a set of inputs and a set of outputs. The switches are arranged in a matrix. If the crossbar switch has M inputs and N outputs, then a crossbar has a matrix with M × N cross-points or places where the connections cross. At each crosspoint is a switch; when closed, it connects one of the inputs to one of the outputs
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