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Uncia (coin)
The uncia (Latin, "twelfth part") was a Roman currency
Roman currency
worth 1/12 of an as.Contents1 Republican coin 2 Empire coin 3 See also 4 NotesRepublican coin[edit] By derivation, it was also the name of a bronze coin valued at one-twelfth of an as produced during the Roman Republic.[1] The uncia started as a Roman-Oscan weight of about 23 grams for a 273 gram pound, with Attic weight issues of about 27 grams under the libral standard for a 327 gram pound and was produced occasionally towards the beginning of Roman cast bronze coinage. Obverse types of the uncia include a knucklebone (c. 289–245 BC), a barleycorn (c. 280–245 BC), and the helmeted bust of Roma (from c. 240 BC). Empire coin[edit] In imperial times the uncia was briefly revived under Trajan (98–117) and Hadrian
Hadrian
(117–138). This coin was about 11–14 mm in diameter and weighed about 0.8–1.2 grams
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Trajan
Trajan
Trajan
(/ˈtreɪdʒən/; Latin: Imperator Caesar Nerva
Nerva
Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus;[1][2] 18 September 53 – 8 August 117 AD) was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 98 to 117 AD. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("the best ruler"), Trajan
Trajan
is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death
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Casting (metalworking)
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold that contains a hollow cavity (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape. The metal and mold are then cooled, and the metal part (the casting) is extracted. Casting
Casting
is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.[1] Casting
Casting
processes have been known for thousands of years, and have been widely used for sculpture (especially in bronze), jewellery in precious metals, and weapons and tools. Traditional techniques include lost-wax casting (which may be further divided into centrifugal casting and vacuum assist direct pour casting), plaster mold casting and sand casting. The modern casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Duella
A duella was an ancient Roman unit of weight, equivalent to a third of a Roman ounce (9.056 grams).[1] References[edit]^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2011-11-17. This standards- or measurement-related article is a stub
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Roman Provincial Coins
Roman provincial currency was coinage minted within the Roman Empire by local civic rather than imperial authorities. These coins were often continuations of the original currencies that existed prior to the arrival of the Romans. Because so many of them were minted in the Greek areas of the empire, they were usually referred to until fairly recently as Greek Imperial coinage, and catalogued at the end of lists of coins minted by the Greek cities. When a new region was assimilated into Roman civilization, the continuance of pre-existing local currencies was often allowed as a matter of expediency. Also, new colonies were frequently given authority to mint bronze coins
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Hadrian
Hadrian
Hadrian
(/ˈheɪdriən/; Latin: Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 117 to 138.[note 1] He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus, probably at Italica, near Santiponce
Santiponce
(in modern-day Spain), into a Hispano-Roman family with centuries-old roots in Hispania. His father was a maternal first cousin of the emperor Trajan. Some years before Hadrian's accession, he married Trajan's grand-niece, Vibia Sabina. Trajan's wife and Empress, Pompeia Plotina, and his close friend and adviser Licinius Sura, were well disposed towards Hadrian
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Roma (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion, Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state.[1] Her image appears on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius.Contents1 Problems in earliest attestation 2 Roma in the Greek world 3 Roma in Imperial cult 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 ReferencesProblems in earliest attestation[edit] A helmeted figure on Roman coins of 280-276 and 265-242 BC is sometimes interpreted as Roma but the identification is contestable.[2] Other early Roman coinage shows a warlike "Amazon" type, possibly Roma but more likely genius than dea
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Barley
Barley
Barley
( Hordeum
Hordeum
vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia
Eurasia
as early as 10,000 years ago.[3] Barley
Barley
has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures
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Knuckle
The knuckles are the joints of the fingers which are brought into prominence when the hand is clenched and a fist is made. The word is cognate to similar words in other Germanic languages, such as the Dutch "knokkel" (knuckle) or German "Knöchel" (ankle), i.e., Knöchlein, the diminutive of the German word for bone (Knochen). Anatomically, it is said that the knuckles consist of the metacarpophalangeal[1] (MCP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints of the finger. The knuckles at the base of the fingers may be referred to as the 1st[1] or major knuckles while the knuckles at the midfinger are known as the 2nd[2] and 3rd, or minor, knuckles
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Libral
The libral standard compares the weight of coins to the bronze as, which originally weighed one Roman pound, but decreased over time to 1/2 pound (the semi-libral standard). It is often used in discussions of ancient cast coinage of central Italy, especially Etruscan coins and Roman Republican coinage. The adjective libral is related to libra, the Ancient Roman unit of weight, and is not related to the word liberal. The libral standard began with the era of the so-called aes grave (heavy bronze) cast coinage of Rome, from circa 280 BC, where one as weighed one Roman pound (libra), or twelve Roman ounces (unciae). This changed when the weight of the aes grave was decreased to approximately 10 unciae (the "light libral standard") circa 265-217 BC, remaining at that level until about 217 BC
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Gram
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme;[1] SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass. Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, and at the temperature of melting ice"[2] (later at 4 °C, the temperature of maximum density of water)
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Coin
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes. Usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation
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Bronze
Bronze
Bronze
is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze
Bronze
Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in Western Eurasia
Eurasia
and South Asia
Asia
is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, and to the early 2nd millennium BC in China;[1] everywhere it gradually spread across regions
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