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Umbrella
An umbrella or parasol is a folding canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs, which is usually mounted on a wooden, metal, or plastic pole. It is designed to protect a person against rain or sunlight. The word "umbrella" typically refers to a device used for protection from rain. The word parasol usually refers to an item designed to protect from the sun. Often the difference is the material used for the canopy; some parasols are not waterproof. Umbrella
Umbrella
canopies may be made of fabric or flexible plastic. Umbrellas and parasols are primarily hand-held portable devices sized for personal use. The largest hand-portable umbrellas are golf umbrellas. Umbrellas can be divided into two categories: fully collapsible umbrellas, in which the metal pole supporting the canopy retracts, making the umbrella small enough to fit in a handbag; and non-collapsible umbrellas, in which the support pole cannot retract and only the canopy can be collapsed
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Acropolis
An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises)[1][2] is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Western World
The Western world, or simply the West (from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root wes-; Ancient Greek: Ἓσπερος /ˈhɛspərʊs/, Hesperos,[1] "towards evening") refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated.[2] The Western world
Western world
is also known as the Occident (from Latin
Latin
word occidens, "sunset, West"). The East and the Orient
Orient
are terms used as contraries. Ancient Greece[a][b] and ancient Rome[c] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization, the former due to its impact on Western philosophy, democracy, science, art, and the ancient Roman culture, the latter due to its influence in governance, republicanism, law, architecture and warfare
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Silk Road
The Silk
Silk
Road was an ancient network of trade routes connecting the East and West which for centuries was central to cultural interaction between them.[1][2][3] The Silk
Silk
Road refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting Asia with the Middle East
Middle East
and southern Europe. The Silk
Silk
Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(207 BCE–220 CE)
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Song Dynasty
The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(/sɔːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties in the north and was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern
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Printing
Printing
Printing
is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder
Cyrus Cylinder
and the Cylinders of Nabonidus. The earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 A.D.[1] Later developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD[2] and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
in the 15th century
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Nineveh
Nineveh
Nineveh
(/ˈnɪnɪvə/; Akkadian: 𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua) ; Syriac: ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ‎ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul
Mosul
in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris
Tigris
River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Nowadays it is a common name for the half of Mosul
Mosul
which lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris. It was the largest city in the world for some fifty years[1] until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked by a coalition of its former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Chaldeans, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians. Its ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate
Ninawa Governorate
of Iraq
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Austen Henry Layard
Sir Austen Henry Layard
Austen Henry Layard
GCB PC (/ˈɔːstɪn ˈhɛnriː ˈlɛərd/; 5 March 1817 – 5 July 1894) was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, politician and diplomat. He is best known as the excavator of Nimrud
Nimrud
and of Nineveh, where he uncovered a large proportion of the Assyrian palace reliefs known, and in 1851 the library of Ashurbanipal.Contents1 Family 2 Biography2.1 Early life 2.2 Excavations and the arts 2.3 Political career 2.4 Diplomatic career 2.5 Retirement in Venice3 Publications 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksFamily[edit] Layard was born in Paris, France, to a family of Huguenot
Huguenot
descent. His father, Henry Peter John Layard, of the Ceylon Civil Service, was the son of Charles Peter Layard, Dean of Bristol, and grandson of Daniel Peter Layard the physician
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Bas-relief
Relief
Relief
is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.[1] What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone (relief sculpture) or wood (relief carving) is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, and is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round, especially one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point, especially in stone
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Persian Empire
The Persian Empire
Empire
(Persian: شاهنشاهی ایران‎, translit. Šâhanšâhiye Irân, lit. 'Imperial Iran') is a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia/ Iran
Iran
since the 6th century BC in the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
era, to the 20th century AD in the Qajar
Qajar
era.Contents1 Achaemenids 2 Parthians and Sasanians 3 Safavids 4 List of the dynasties described as a Persian Empire 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAchaemenids The first dynasty of the Persian Empire
Empire
was created by Achaemenids, established by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BC with the conquest of Median, Lydian and Babylonian empires.[1] It covered much of the Ancient world and controlled the largest percentage of the earth's population in history when it was conquered by Alexander the Great
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Persepolis
Persepolis
Persepolis
(Old Persian:𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿,Pārsa; Modern Persian: پرسپولیس) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BC). It is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz
Shiraz
in Fars Province, Iran. The earliest remains of Persepolis
Persepolis
date back to 515 BC
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John Malcolm
Major-general Sir John Malcolm
John Malcolm
GCB, KLS (2 May 1769 – 30 May 1833) was a Scottish soldier, diplomat, East India Company
East India Company
administrator, statesman, and historian.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Family 4 Legacy 5 Literary works 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Sir John Malcolm
John Malcolm
was born in 1769, one of seventeen children of George Malcolm, an impoverished tenant farmer in Eskdale in the Scottish Border country, and his wife Margaret (‘Bonnie Peggy’), née Pasley. He left school, family and country at the age of thirteen, and achieved distinction in the East India Company
East India Company
over the next half century. A spirited character, he was nicknamed ‘Boy Malcolm’; for throughout his life he retained a youthful enthusiasm for field sports and fun and games
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Whip
A whip is a tool which was traditionally designed to strike animals or people to aid guidance or exert control over animals or other people, through pain compliance or fear of pain, although in some activities, whips can be used without use of pain, such as an additional pressure aid or visual directional cue in equestrianism. Whips are generally of two types, either a firm stick designed for direct contact, or a flexible whip that requires a specialized swing to be effective, but has a longer reach and greater force, but may have less precision. There are also whips which combine both a firm stick (the stock or handle) and a flexible line (the lash or thong), such as hunting whips. The majority of whips are designed for use on animals, although whips such as the "cat o' nine tails" and knout were specifically developed for flagellation as a means of inflicting corporal punishment or torture on human targets
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Tent
A tent  pronunciation (help·info) is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope. While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents are usually anchored using guy ropes tied to stakes or tent pegs. First used as portable homes by nomads, tents are now more often used for recreational camping and as temporary shelters. Tents range in size from "bivouac" structures, just big enough for one person to sleep in, up to huge circus tents capable of seating thousands of people. The bulk of this article is concerned with tents used for recreational camping which have sleeping space for one to ten people. Larger tents are discussed in a separate section below. Tents for recreational camping fall into two categories. Tents intended to be carried by backpackers are the smallest and lightest type
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Palm Tree
The Arecaceae
Arecaceae
are a botanical family of perennial climbers, shrubs, acaules and trees commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).[3] They are flowering plants, a family in the monocot order Arecales. Currently 181 genera with around 2600 species are known,[4] most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. Palms are among the best known and most extensively cultivated plant families. They have been important to humans throughout much of history
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