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Umayyad Palace
The UMAYYAD PALACE is a large palatial complex from the Umayyad period, located on the Citadel Hill (Jabal al-Qal'a) of Amman
Amman
, Jordan . Built during the first half of the 8th century, it is now largely ruined, with a restored domed entrance chamber, known as the "kiosk" or "monumental gateway"
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Al Qastal, Jordan
Coordinates : 31°44′49″N 35°56′8″E / 31.74694°N 35.93556°E / 31.74694; 35.93556 AL QASTAL (Arabic : القسطل‎‎)is a town in the Amman Governorate of northern Jordan
Jordan
. Originally established as an Umayyad
Umayyad
settlement, it remains the oldest and most complete such settlement in the Near East The remains of the minaret at Qastal is especially important as it is the only one extant from the Umayyad
Umayyad
period, making it one of the oldest minarets in the world. Qasr Al Qastal, also located within the town, is considered one of the desert castles and is just 5 km from Qasr Mshatta . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Qasr al-Qastal * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYTextual evidence from the poet Kuthayyir Azza indicates that the complex at Al Qastal was originally built by Caliph Yazid bin Abd al-Malik
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Umayyad
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelled OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
. This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca
Mecca
. The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria
Syria
, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH
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Al-Muwaqqar
AL-MUWAQQAR(Arabic : الموقر‎‎) is a district in the Amman Governorate of north-western Jordan . The village contains the ruins of an Umayyad palace, the Qasr Al Muwaqqar, one of the desert castles . Little remains of the palace today except several acanthus leaf capitals and gauge for a water reservoir . The district is the headquarters of the 3rd Armored Division and a police training center. CONTENTS * 1 Archaeology: the qasr * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links ARCHAEOLOGY: THE QASRThe village of contains the ruins of an Umayyad palace, the QASR AL-MUSHASH or QASR AL-MUWAQQAR, a qasr-type fortified palace also known as a desert castle . Little remains of the palace today except several acanthus leaf capitals and gauge for a water reservoir
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: الْأُرْدُنّ‎ Al-‘Urdunn ), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic
Arabic
: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎ Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Hāshimīyah), is a sovereign Arab
Arab
state in western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River
Jordan River
. Jordan
Jordan
is bordered by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to the south, Iraq
Iraq
to the north-east, Syria
Syria
to the north, Israel
Israel
and Palestine to the west. The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
lies along its western borders and the country has a small shoreline on the Red Sea
Red Sea
in its extreme south-west, but is otherwise landlocked
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Qasr Tuba
Coordinates : 31°19′32″N 36°34′15″E / 31.32556°N 36.57083°E / 31.32556; 36.57083 QASR TUBA is an Umayyad
Umayyad
qasr or castle in the Amman Governorate
Amman Governorate
of northern Jordan
Jordan
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYLike the other desert castles , Qasr Tuba
Qasr Tuba
was built during the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate. The site was brought to art historical attention after it was visited in 1896 by the Czech explorer Alois Musil . DESCRIPTIONLike another Umayyad
Umayyad
desert castle, Qasr Mshatta , Qasr Tuba
Qasr Tuba
was built using a combination of limestone and bricks
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Qasr Al-Hayr Al-Gharbi
QASR AL-HAYR AL-GHARBI (Arabic : قصر الحير الغربي‎‎) is a castle or qasr located 80 km south-west of Palmyra
Palmyra
on the Damascus road in Syria, is a twin palace of Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi , built by the Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 727 CE. It was built in the Byzantine
Byzantine
architectural style. It was used as an eye of the king during the Umayyad era, to control the movement of the desert tribes and to be a barrier against them, as well as being a hunting lodge . Later it was utilized by the Ayyubids and the Mamelukes but was abandoned permanently after the Mongol invasions. The castle is quadrangular in outline with 70-meter sides. The central doorway to the castle is very attractive, and has been moved to the National Museum of Damascus to be used as the entrance
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Khirbat Al-Minya
KHIRBAT AL-MINYA (also known as AYN MINYAT HISHAM or HURVAT MINIM) is an Umayyad
Umayyad
-built palace in the eastern Galilee
Galilee
, Israel
Israel
, located about 200 meters (660 ft) west of the northern end of Lake Tiberias
Tiberias
. It was erected as a qasr complex, with a palace, mosque, and bath built by a single patron. The site is the only Umayyad
Umayyad
ruin in Israeli territory with remains above the ground and features one of the earliest mosques in Palestine
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Al-Sinnabra
AL-SINNABRA or SINN EN-NABRA, is the Arabic place name for a historic site on the southern shore of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
in modern-day Israel . The tell upon which al-Sinnabra was situated, Khirbet Kerak or Bet Yerah, is one of the largest in the Levant , spanning an area of over 50 acres. Bet Yerah was the Hellenistic era twin city of SENNABRIS (Hebrew : צינבריי, סנבראי‎), as al-Sinnabra was known in Classical antiquity, and its remains are located at the same tell. The city or village was inhabited in the Hellenistic, Roman-Byzantine, and early Islamic
Islamic
periods. An Arab
Arab
Islamic
Islamic
palatial complex or qasr located there was also known as al-Sinnabra and served as a winter resort to caliphs in Umayyad -era Palestine (c. 650-704 AD)
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Qasr Al-Hayr Al-Sharqi
QASR AL-HAYR AL-SHARQI (Eastern al-Hayr Palace
Palace
or the "Eastern Castle") is a castle (qasr) in the middle of the Syrian Desert . It was built by the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 728-29 CE in an area rich in desert fauna. It was apparently used as a military and hunting outpost. The palace is the counterpart of Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi , a nearby castle palace built one year earlier. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 Architecture * 3 World Heritage
World Heritage
Status * 4 See also * 5 Notes LOCATIONQasr al-Hayr al-Sharq is 27 kilometres (17 mi) from Al-Sukhnah and 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Sergiopolis (Rusafa), near Bishri Mountain near Palmyran Middle Mountains. ARCHITECTUREThe palace consists of a large open courtyard surrounded by thick bulwarks and towers guarding the entrances as well as each corner
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Qasr Hammam As Sarah
HAMMAM AS-SARAH is an Umayyad
Umayyad
bathhouse located in Jordan
Jordan
, and built in connection with the complex of Qasr al-Hallabat , which stands some 2 kilometres to the west. Qasr al-Hallabat is one of the Umayyad buildings collectively known as the desert castles . The design of Hammam as-Sarah shows similarities to the design of Qusayr \'Amra , another one of the desert castles. The design consists of a rectangular audience hall as well as the actual baths. The baths comprise an apodyterium (undressing room), tepidarium (warm room) and caldarium (hot room), with attached furnace, water well, water lifting device (saqiya ), and raised water tank. The remains of a roofless mosque next to the furnace are of recent date. As of 2007 or earlier, most of the bath complex as well as the accompanying mosaics and sculpture were being conserved
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Qasr Al-Hallabat
Coordinates : 32°5′00″N 36°21′47″E / 32.08333°N 36.36306°E / 32.08333; 36.36306 QASR AL HALLABAT is a town in the Zarqa Governorate of north-western Jordan
Jordan
, north-east of the capital of Amman
Amman
. The town is named after the Umayyad
Umayyad
desert castle located there. To the east of the castle stands the associated bath house of HAMMAM AS-SARAH . CONTENTS * 1 Castle * 2 Modern town * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References CASTLEThe complex of Qasr al-Hallabat is located in Jordan's eastern desert. Originally a Roman fortress constructed under Emperor Caracalla
Caracalla
to protect its inhabitants from Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes, this site dates to the second and third century AD, although there is trace evidence of Nabatean
Nabatean
presence at the site
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Qasr Al-Kharanah
QASR KHARANA (Arabic : قصر خرّانة‎‎), sometimes QASR AL-HARRANA, QASR AL-KHARANAH, KHARANEH or HRANEH, is one of the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan , about 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Amman and relatively close to the border with Saudi Arabia . It is believed to have been built sometime before the early 8th century AD, based on a graffito in one of its upper rooms, despite visible Sassanid influences. A Greek or Byzantine house may have existed on the site. It is one of the earliest examples of Islamic architecture in the region. Its purpose remains unclear today. "Castle" is a misnomer as the building's internal arrangement does not suggest a military use, and slits in its wall could not have been designed for arrowslits . It could have been a caravanserai , or resting place for traders, but lacks the water source such buildings usually had close by and is not on any major trade routes
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Qasr Al-Mshatta
QASR MSHATTA (Arabic : قصر المشتى‎‎, "Winter Palace") is the ruin of an Umayyad winter palace, probably commissioned by Caliph Al-Walid II (743-744). The ruins are located approximately 30 km south of Amman , Jordan , north of Queen Alia International Airport , and are part of a string of castles, palaces and caravanserais known collectively in Jordan as the Desert Castles . Though much of the ruins can still be found in situ , the most striking feature of the palace, its facade , has been removed and is on display at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin . The complex was never completed. CONTENTS * 1 Architecture * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References ARCHITECTUREThe ruins of Qasr Mushatta consist of a square enclosure, surrounded by an outer wall comprising 25 towers. Its internal space is divided into three equal longitudinal strips, of which just the central one was completed to some degree
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