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Umayyad Palace
The UMAYYAD PALACE is a large palatial complex from the Umayyad period, located on the Citadel Hill (Jabal al-Qal'a) of Amman , Jordan . Built during the first half of the 8th century, it is now largely ruined, with a restored domed entrance chamber, known as the "kiosk" or "monumental gateway"
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Umayyad
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic : ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎‎, trans. _Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah_), also spelled OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad . This caliphate was centred on the Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic : ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎‎, _al-ʾUmawiyyūn_, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, _Banū ʾUmayya_, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca . The Umayyad family had first come to power under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but the Umayyad regime was founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria , after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661/41 AH . Syria remained the Umayyads' main power base thereafter, and Damascus was their capital. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests , incorporating the Caucasus , Transoxiana , Sindh , the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula ( Al-Andalus ) into the Muslim world. At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 11,100,000 km2 (4,300,000 sq mi) and 62 million people (29% of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. The Umayyad Caliphate was secular by nature
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Amman Citadel
Coordinates : 31°57′17″N 35°56′03″E / 31.9547°N 35.9343°E / 31.9547; 35.9343 The AMMAN CITADEL is a historical site at the center of downtown Amman , Jordan . Known in Arabic as _JABAL AL-QAL\'A_, (_جبل القلعة_), the L-shaped hill is one of the seven _jabals_(mountains) that originally made up Amman. Evidence of occupation since the pottery Neolithic period has been found. It was inhabited by different peoples and cultures until the time of the Umayyads , after which came a period of decline and for much of the time until 1878 the former city became an abandoned pile of ruins only sporadically used by Bedouin and seasonal farmers. Despite this gap, the Citadel of Amman is considered to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited places. The Citadel is considered an important site because it has had a long history of occupation by many great civilizations. Most of the buildings still visible at the site are from the Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad periods. The major buildings at the site are the Temple of Hercules , a Byzantine church, and the Umayyad Palace . Though the fortification walls enclose the heart of the site, the ancient periods of occupation covered large areas
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Amman
AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic : عمّان‎‎ _ʻammān_ pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan , and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 sq mi). Today, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal . Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji . Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Desert Castles
The UMAYYAD DESERT CASTLES, of which the DESERT CASTLES OF JORDAN represent a prominent part, are fortified palaces or castles in what used to be the Umayyad
Umayyad
province of Bilad ash-Sham . Most Umayyad "desert castles" are scattered over the arid regions of eastern Jordan , with several more in Syria
Syria
, Israel
Israel
and the West Bank
West Bank
(Palestine ). The castles were built roughly between 660 and 750, under the caliphs of the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty who had made Damascus
Damascus
their new capital in 661; after 750 the capital moved to the newly-built Baghdad
Baghdad
, and some of the buildings were never completed. The Umayyads erected a number of characteristic palaces, known in Arabic
Arabic
as _qusur_ (pl.)/_qasr_ (sing.), some in the cities and some along important roads, of which some are in the desert. The term "Desert Castle" is thus not ideal, since it artificially separates similar _qusur_ according to their location
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Qasr Amra
QASR AMRA (قصر عمرة / ALA-LC : Qaṣr ‘Amrah), also transcribed as QUSEIR AMRA or QUSAYR AMRA, is the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan . It was built early in the 8th century, some time between 723 and 743, by Walid Ibn Yazid, the future Umayyad caliph Walid II , whose dominance of the region was rising at the time. It is considered one of the most important examples of early Islamic art and architecture . The discovery of an inscription during work in 2012 has allowed for more accurate dating of the structure. The building is actually the remnant of a larger complex that included an actual castle, of which only the foundation remains. What stands today is a small country cabin, meant as a royal retreat, without any military function. It is most notable for the frescoes that remain on the ceilings inside, which depict, among others, a group of rulers , hunting, naked women and, above one bath chamber, an accurate representation of the zodiac . These have led to its designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site , one of four in the country. That status, and its location along Jordan's major east–west highway, relatively close to Amman , have made it a frequent tourist destination
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Qasr Azraq
QASR AL-AZRAQ (Arabic : قصر الأزرق‎‎, "Blue Fortress") is a large fortress located in present-day eastern Jordan . It is one of the desert castles , located on the outskirts of present-day Azraq , roughly 100 km (62 mi) east of Amman . Its strategic value came from the nearby oasis, the only water source in a vast desert region. The name of the fortress and associated town came from these. The settlement was known in antiquity as Basie and the Romans were the first to make military use of the site, and later an early mosque was built in the middle. It did not assume its present form until an extensive renovation and expansion by the Ayyubids in the 13th century, using locally quarried basalt which makes the castle darker than most other buildings in the area. Later, it would be used by the Ottoman armies during that empire's hegemony over the region. During the Arab Revolt , T.E. Lawrence based his operations here in 1917–18, an experience he wrote about in his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom . The connection to "Lawrence of Arabia" has been one of the castle's major draws for tourists . CONTENTS * 1 Architecture * 2 History * 3 Today * 4 See also * 5 References ARCHITECTURE The stone door The castle is constructed of the local black basalt and is a square structure with 80 metre long walls encircling a large central courtyard. In the middle of the courtyard is a small mosque that may date from Umayyad times
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Qasr Burqu'
Coordinates : 32°36′30″N 37°57′45″E / 32.608436°N 37.96237°E / 32.608436; 37.96237 Qasr Burqu' and Burqu lake from the north QASR BURQU\' is a set of ruins and an archaeological site in the badia of eastern Jordan . It is often described as one of the Umayyad desert castles although, as noted by Svend Helms, "it is neither a castle, nor is it in the desert" and most of the structures predate the Umayyad Caliphate . Wikimedia Commons has media related to QASR BURQU\\' .REFERENCES * ^ Helms, Svend (1991). "A New Architectural Survey of Qaṣr Burquʽ, Eastern Jordan". The Antiquaries Journal. 71: 191–215. ISSN 1758-5309 . doi :10.1017/S000358150008687X . * v * t * e Umayyad Desert Castles JORDAN * Qasr Amra * Qasr Azraq * Qasr Burqu' * Qasr Al-Hallabat * Qasr Al-Kharanah * Qasr Al-Mshatta * Qasr al-Mushash * Qasr Al-Qastar * Qasr Hammam As Sarah * Qasr Tuba * Umayyad Palace * Umm al-Walid SYRIA * Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi * Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi * Jabal Sais ISRAEL AND PALESTINE * Hisham\'s Palace * Khirbat al-Minya * Al-Sinnabra This article relating to archaeology is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Qasr_Burqu%27 additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Qasr Al-Hallabat
Coordinates : 32°5′00″N 36°21′47″E / 32.08333°N 36.36306°E / 32.08333; 36.36306 QASR AL HALLABAT is a town in the Zarqa Governorate of north-western Jordan , north-east of the capital of Amman . The town is named after the Umayyad desert castle located there. To the east of the castle stands the associated bath house of HAMMAM AS-SARAH . CONTENTS * 1 Castle * 2 Modern town * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References CASTLEThe complex of Qasr al-Hallabat is located in Jordan's eastern desert. Originally a Roman fortress constructed under Emperor Caracalla to protect its inhabitants from Bedouin tribes, this site dates to the second and third century AD, although there is trace evidence of Nabatean presence at the site. It was one fort of many on the Roman highway, Via Nova Traiana , a route that connected Damascus to Aila (modern-day Aqaba ) by way of Petra and Philadelphia (modern-day Amman ). However, by the eighth century, the Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ordered the Roman structures to be demolished in order to redevelop this military site and its neighboring territory to become one of the grandest of all Umayyad desert complexes. Guided by the extant plan, he incorporated a mosque (found 15 meters from the southeast of the main structure), a complicated water system including five cisterns and a considerably large water reservoir , and a bathhouse
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Qasr Al-Kharanah
QASR KHARANA (Arabic : قصر خرّانة‎‎), sometimes QASR AL-HARRANA, QASR AL-KHARANAH, KHARANEH or HRANEH, is one of the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan , about 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Amman and relatively close to the border with Saudi Arabia . It is believed to have been built sometime before the early 8th century AD, based on a graffito in one of its upper rooms, despite visible Sassanid influences. A Greek or Byzantine house may have existed on the site. It is one of the earliest examples of Islamic architecture in the region. Its purpose remains unclear today. "Castle" is a misnomer as the building's internal arrangement does not suggest a military use, and slits in its wall could not have been designed for arrowslits . It could have been a caravanserai , or resting place for traders, but lacks the water source such buildings usually had close by and is not on any major trade routes. It remains very well preserved, whatever its original use. Since it is located just off a major highway and is within a short drive of Amman, it has become one of the most visited of the desert castles. Archaeologist Stephen Urice wrote his doctoral dissertation, later published as a book, on Qasr Kharana, based on his work restoring the building in the late 1970s
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Qasr Al-Mshatta
QASR MSHATTA (Arabic : قصر المشتى‎‎, "Winter Palace") is the ruin of an Umayyad winter palace, probably commissioned by Caliph Al-Walid II (743-744). The ruins are located approximately 30 km south of Amman , Jordan , north of Queen Alia International Airport , and are part of a string of castles, palaces and caravanserais known collectively in Jordan as the Desert Castles . Though much of the ruins can still be found in situ , the most striking feature of the palace, its facade , has been removed and is on display at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin . The complex was never completed. CONTENTS * 1 Architecture * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References ARCHITECTUREThe ruins of Qasr Mushatta consist of a square enclosure, surrounded by an outer wall comprising 25 towers. Its internal space is divided into three equal longitudinal strips, of which just the central one was completed to some degree. This central strip contains three major elements: on its southern side is what K. A. C. Creswell called the "Gateway Block", followed by the large central courtyard, which leads northwards to the reception hall wing. The Gateway Block presents only the foundations of several rooms arranged symmetrically around a small courtyard. Among the rooms there is a small mosque, recognisable by the concave mihrab on its southern wall, facing Mecca . The large central courtyard had a rectangular pond at its centre
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Al-Muwaqqar
AL-MUWAQQAR(Arabic : الموقر‎‎) is a district in the Amman Governorate of north-western Jordan . The village contains the ruins of an Umayyad palace, the Qasr Al Muwaqqar, one of the desert castles . Little remains of the palace today except several acanthus leaf capitals and gauge for a water reservoir . The district is the headquarters of the 3rd Armored Division and a police training center. CONTENTS * 1 Archaeology: the qasr * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links ARCHAEOLOGY: THE QASRThe village of contains the ruins of an Umayyad palace, the QASR AL-MUSHASH or QASR AL-MUWAQQAR, a qasr-type fortified palace also known as a desert castle . Little remains of the palace today except several acanthus leaf capitals and gauge for a water reservoir
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Al Qastal, Jordan
Coordinates : 31°44′49″N 35°56′8″E / 31.74694°N 35.93556°E / 31.74694; 35.93556 AL QASTAL (Arabic : القسطل‎‎)is a town in the Amman Governorate of northern Jordan . Originally established as an Umayyad settlement, it remains the oldest and most complete such settlement in the Near East The remains of the minaret at Qastal is especially important as it is the only one extant from the Umayyad period, making it one of the oldest minarets in the world. Qasr Al Qastal, also located within the town, is considered one of the desert castles and is just 5 km from Qasr Mshatta . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Qasr al-Qastal * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYTextual evidence from the poet Kuthayyir Azza indicates that the complex at Al Qastal was originally built by Caliph Yazid bin Abd al-Malik . The fact that the complex at Al Qastal was finished, while the nearby Qasr Mshatta was never finished indicates that Al Qastal may be the oldest Umayyad construction in the area. Tombstones from Al Qastal indicates that after the fall of the Umayyads the site was used by the Abbasid Caliphate . When the Abbasid Caliphate fell there was a short period when the site was abandoned. later the Mameluke and Ayyubid dynasties re-settled in Al Qastal, leaving behind a number of small buildings. QASR AL-QASTALQasr Al Qastal was an Umayyad palace . The building was approximately 68 meters square
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Qasr Hammam As Sarah
HAMMAM AS-SARAH is an Umayyad bathhouse located in Jordan , and built in connection with the complex of Qasr al-Hallabat , which stands some 2 kilometres to the west. Qasr al-Hallabat is one of the Umayyad buildings collectively known as the desert castles . The design of Hammam as-Sarah shows similarities to the design of Qusayr \'Amra , another one of the desert castles. The design consists of a rectangular audience hall as well as the actual baths. The baths comprise an apodyterium (undressing room), tepidarium (warm room) and caldarium (hot room), with attached furnace, water well, water lifting device (saqiya ), and raised water tank. The remains of a roofless mosque next to the furnace are of recent date. As of 2007 or earlier, most of the bath complex as well as the accompanying mosaics and sculpture were being conserved
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Qasr Tuba
Coordinates : 31°19′32″N 36°34′15″E / 31.32556°N 36.57083°E / 31.32556; 36.57083 QASR TUBA is an Umayyad qasr or castle in the Amman Governorate of northern Jordan . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYLike the other desert castles , Qasr Tuba was built during the Umayyad Caliphate. The site was brought to art historical attention after it was visited in 1896 by the Czech explorer Alois Musil . DESCRIPTIONLike another Umayyad desert castle, Qasr Mshatta , Qasr Tuba was built using a combination of limestone and bricks. Its plan consists of an oblong enclosure measuring 140 m by 72 m, almost a double square, or 2 symmetrical enclosures joined through a long central corridor. The enclosure walls are supported by semi-round towers, except on the north side where the two gateways are flanked by two square rooms. The northwestern section is nearly intact and several lengths of curtain-wall exist on the western side. The rest of the building, which was never completed, is not preserved. Wells are located nearby, close to a dry river bed ("wadi ")
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