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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Muawiya II
Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning. It was the name of the first Umayyad caliph.[1] Notable bearers of this name include: Muawiyah I (602–680), first Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 661–680) Muawiya II (661–684), third Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 683–684) Mu'awiya ibn Hudayj, Umayyad general and governor Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (died 737), Umayyad prince and general (fl. 725–737) Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (born 1941), Prime-Minister, then President of MauritaniaPlaces[edit]Mu'awiya, BasmaReferences[edit]^ "Tareekh-ul-Khulafa". Scribd.com. 2010-09-26. Archived from the original on December 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-27. External links[edit]Ruling on calling one’s son Mu’aawiyah and mention of some who bore this name "This page or section lists people that share the same given name
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Aramaic
Aramaic[2] (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic: آرامية‎) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history,[3] Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East. Historically, Aramaic was the language of Aramean tribes, a Semitic people of the region around between the Levant
Levant
and the northern Euphrates
Euphrates
valley
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Prakrit Language
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it
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Georgian Language
Georgian (ქართული ენა, kartuli ena, pronounced [kʰɑrtʰuli ɛnɑ]) is a Kartvelian language
Kartvelian language
spoken by Georgians
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Sindhi Language
Sindhi /ˈsɪndi/[9] (سنڌي‎, सिन्धी, , ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh.[10][11][12] In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the central government. Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan
Pakistan
in the Sindh province, and in India, the Kutch
Kutch
region of the state of Gujarat
Gujarat
and in the Ulhasnagar
Ulhasnagar
region of the state of Maharashtra
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Mozarabic
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin
Late Latin
and early Romance dialects spoken in Hispania
Hispania
from the 5th to the 8th centuries and was spoken until the 13th century when it was displaced, mostly by Castilian (which became modern Spanish).[2] This set of Latin
Latin
dialects came to be called the Mozarabic language
Mozarabic language
by 19th-century Spanish scholars who studied medieval Al-Andalus, though there never was a common language standard. The term is inaccurate, because it refers to the Christians who spoke Andalusi Romance, as a part of the Romance dialectic linguistic continuum in the Iberian Peninsula, but it was also spoken by Jews, and Muslims, as large parts of the population converted to Islam
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Hephthalite Empire
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia
Sogdia
and south through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as Xionites
Xionites
or "Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon Huns
Huns
and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White Huns
Huns
who invaded northern India
India
are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan
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Berber Languages
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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Armenian Language
Semi-official or unofficial (de facto) status: Georgia (Samtskhe-Javakheti)[a]  Lebanon[b]  Turkey[c]  Iran  United States (California)[d]Regulated by Institute of Language (Armenian National Academy of Sciences)[22]Language codesISO 639-1 hyISO 639-2 arm (B) hye (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: hye – Eastern Armenian hyw – Western Armenian xcl – Classical Armenian axm – Middle ArmenianGlottolog arme1241[23]Linguasphere 57-AAA-aThe Armenian-speaking world:   regions where Armenian is the language of the majorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Emirate Of Tlemcen
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s Algerian Civil War
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Muawiya
Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning. It was the name of the first Umayyad caliph.[1] Notable bearers of this name include: Muawiyah I (602–680), first Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 661–680) Muawiya II (661–684), third Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 683–684) Mu'awiya ibn Hudayj, Umayyad general and governor Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (died 737), Umayyad prince and general (fl. 725–737) Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (born 1941), Prime-Minister, then President of MauritaniaPlaces[edit]Mu'awiya, BasmaReferences[edit]^ "Tareekh-ul-Khulafa". Scribd.com. 2010-09-26. Archived from the original on December 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-27. External links[edit]Ruling on calling one’s son Mu’aawiyah and mention of some who bore this name "This page or section lists people that share the same given name
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Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran
Iran
that during the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well. Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is classified as a Western Iranian language. It descends from Old Persian
Old Persian
and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian. Traces of Middle Persian, or Parsik, are found in remnants of Sasanian inscriptions and Egyptian papyri, coins and seals, fragments of Manichaean writings, and treatises and Zoroastrian books from the Sasanian era, as well as in the post-Sasanian Zoroastrian variant of the language sometimes known as Pahlavi, which originally referred to the Pahlavi scripts,[2][3] and that was also the preferred writing system for several other Middle Iranian languages
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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