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Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
(UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 100 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Cornea
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. The cornea, with the anterior chamber and lens, refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power.[1][2] In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is approximately 43 dioptres.[3] The cornea can be reshaped by surgical procedures such as LASIK.[4] While the cornea contributes most of the eye's focusing power, its focus is fixed
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Photodiode
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, and may have large or small surface areas. Photodiodes usually have a slower response time as their surface area increases. The common, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large area photodiode. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Many diodes designed for use specifically as a photodiode use a PIN junction rather than a p–n junction, to increase the speed of response
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Lyman-alpha Line
In physics, the Lyman-alpha line, sometimes written as Ly-α line, is a spectral line of hydrogen, or more generally of one-electron ions, in the Lyman series, emitted when the electron falls from the n = 2 orbital to the n = 1 orbital, where n is the principal quantum number. In hydrogen, its wavelength of 1215.67 angstroms (121.567 nm or 6993121567000000000♠1.21567×10−7 m), corresponding to a frequency of 7015247000000000000♠2.47×1015 hertz, places the Lyman-alpha line
Lyman-alpha line
in the vacuum ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is absorbed by air
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Photon Energy
Photon
Photon
energy is the energy carried by a single photon. The amount of energy is directly proportional to the photon's electromagnetic frequency and inversely proportional to the wavelength. The higher the photon's frequency, the higher its energy. Equivalently, the longer the photon's wavelength, the lower its energy. Photon
Photon
energy is solely a function of the photon's wavelength. Other factors, such as the intensity of the radiation, do not affect photon energy. In other words, two photons of light with the same color and therefore, same frequency, will have the same photon energy, even if one was emitted from a wax candle and the other from the Sun. Photon
Photon
energy can be represented by any unit of energy. Among the units commonly used to denote photon energy are the electronvolt (eV) and the joule (as well as its multiples, such as the microjoule)
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ISO Standard
Standard
Standard
may refer to:Contents1 Flags 2 Norm, convention or requirement2.1 Mathematics 2.2 Military3 Music 4 Newspapers 5 Places5.1 United States 5.2 Other6 Sports 7 Vehicles7.1 Automotive 7.2 Aviation8 Other businesses 9 Other 10 See alsoFlags[edit]Any war flag or other military standard Colours, standards and guidons Ensign, a distinguishing flag of a ship or a military unit Heraldic standard, a type of flag containing heraldic devices and used for personal identificationNorm, convention or requirement[edit] Further information: Canon (basic principle)
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John William Draper
John William Draper
John William Draper
(May 5, 1811 – January 4, 1882) was an English-American scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian and photographer. He is credited with producing the first clear photograph of a female face (1839–40) and the first detailed photograph of the moon in 1840. He was also the first president of the American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society
(1876–77) and a founder of the New York University School of Medicine. One of Draper's books, the History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, popularised the conflict thesis proposing intrinsic hostility in the relationship between religion and science
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Reactivity (chemistry)
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy. Reactivity refers to:the chemical reactions of a single substance, the chemical reactions of two or more substances that interact with each other, the systematic study of sets of reactions of these two kinds, methodology that applies to the study of reactivity of chemicals of all kinds, experimental methods that are used to observe these processes theories to predict and to account for these processes.The chemical reactivity of a single substance (reactant) covers its behavior in which it:Decomposes Forms new substances by addition of atoms from another reactant or reactants Interacts with two or more other reactants to form two or more productsThe chemical reactivity of a substance can refer to the variety of circumstances (conditions that include temperature, pressure, presence of
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Silver Chloride
insoluble in alcohol, dilute acids. Magnetic susceptibility (χ)−49.0·10−6 cm3/mol Refractive index
Refractive index
(nD)2.071Structure Crystal
Crystal
structurehaliteThermochemistryStd molar entropy (So298)96 J·mol−1·K−1[1]Std enthalpy of formation (ΔfHo298)−127 kJ·mol−1[1]HazardsSafety data sheet Fischer Scientific, Salt Lake MetalsNFPA 7040 2 0Related compoundsOther anionssilver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodideExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Silver
Silver
chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl. This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water (this behavior being reminiscent of the chlorides of Tl+ and Pb2+)
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Aphakia
Aphakia is the absence of the lens of the eye, due to surgical removal, a perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly. It causes a loss of accommodation, far sightedness (hyperopia), and a deep anterior chamber. Complications include detachment of the vitreous or retina, and glaucoma. Babies are rarely born with aphakia. Occurrence most often results from surgery to remove congenital cataract (clouding of the eye's lens, which can block light from entering the eye and focusing clearly). Congenital
Congenital
cataracts usually develop as a result of infection of the fetus or genetic reasons
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Ionization
Ionization
Ionization
(Ionisation), is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.[1] Ionization
Ionization
can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with subatomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and ions, or through the interaction with light. Heterolytic bond cleavage and heterolytic substitution reactions can result in the formation of ion pairs
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Photocathode
A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound. When this is struck by a quantum of light (photon), the absorbed energy causes electron emission due to the photoelectric effect.Contents1 Uses 2 Construction 3 Coatings 4 Photocathode materials 5 References 6 External linksUses[edit] For many years the photocathode was the only practical method for converting light to an electron current. As such it tends to function as a form of 'electric film' and shared many characteristics of photography. It was therefore the key element in opto-electronic devices, such as TV camera tubes like the orthocon and vidicon, and in image tubes such as intensifiers, converters, and dissectors
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Photoreceptor Cell
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of sensory neuron found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction. The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation) into signals that can stimulate biological processes. To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential. There are currently three known types of photoreceptor cells in mammalian eyes: rods, cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing information used by the visual system to form a representation of the visual world, sight
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Electric Arc
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge. The current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma; the plasma may produce visible light. An arc discharge is characterized by a lower voltage than a glow discharge and relies on thermionic emission of electrons from the electrodes supporting the arc. An archaic term is voltaic arc, as used in the phrase "voltaic arc lamp". Techniques for arc suppression can be used to reduce the duration or likelihood of arc formation. In the late 1800s, electric arc lighting was in wide use for public lighting. Some low-pressure electric arcs are used in many applications
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