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US Constitution
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Ratification
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.[1] The term applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutions in federations such as the United States
United States
and Canada
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Articles Of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States
United States
of America that served as its first constitution.[1] It was approved, after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states. A guiding principle of the Articles was to preserve the independence and sovereignty of the states. The federal government received only those powers which the colonies had recognized as belonging to king and parliament.[2] The Articles formed a war-time confederation of states, with an extremely limited central government
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Effective Date
An effective date or as of date is the date upon which something is considered to take effect, which may be a past, present or future date. This may be different from the date upon which the event occurs or is recorded.[1][2] In Reserve Fund Planning, an effective date refers to the fiscal year's first day where changes, voted on at a condo or strata corporation Annual General Meeting, take effect regardless of whether the vote took place before or after the beginning of the fiscal year. This effective date is when recommendations take place. See also[edit]Coming into force Official birthdaysReferences[edit]^ Richard Snodgrass (1985), A taxonomy of time databases, pp. 236–246, ISBN 0-89791-160-1  ^ Kenneth A. Adams (2004), A manual of style for contract drafting, ISBN 978-1-59031-380-0 This legal term article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis database-related article is a stub
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Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., (/ˈwɑːʃɪŋtən ˌdiːˈsiː/) formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington; D.C.; or the district, is the capital of the United States.[6] Founded after the American Revolution
American Revolution
as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the
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National Archives And Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration
National Archives and Records Administration
(NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government
United States government
charged with the preservation and documentation of government and historical records. It is also tasked with increasing public access to those documents which make up the National Archive.[6] NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, and federal regulations
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Constitutional Convention (United States)
The Constitutional Convention[1]:31 (also known as the Philadelphia Convention,[1]:31 the Federal Convention,[1]:31 or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia[2][3]) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State House (later known as Independence Hall
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Twenty-fourth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964. Southern states of the former Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
adopted poll taxes in laws of the late 19th century and new constitutions from 1890 to 1908, after the Democratic Party had generally regained control of state legislatures decades after the end of Reconstruction, as a measure to prevent African Americans
African Americans
and often poor whites from voting. Use of the poll taxes by states was held to be constitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
in the 1937 decision Breedlove v
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Fifteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. In the final years of the American Civil War
American Civil War
and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of the millions of black former slaves. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black male voters was important for the party's future
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Sixteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be direct taxes in the court case of Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895). The amendment was adopted on February 3, 1913.Contents1 Text 2 Other Constitutional provisions regarding taxes 3 Income taxes before the Pollock case 4 The Pollock case 5 Adoption 6 Pollock overruled 7 Case law7.1 The Brushaber case 7.2 The Kerbaugh-Empire Co
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Seventeenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states. The amendment supersedes Article I, §3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, under which senators were elected by state legislatures. It also alters the procedure for filling vacancies in the Senate, allowing for state legislatures to permit their governors to make temporary appointments until a special election can be held. The amendment was proposed by the 62nd Congress in 1912 and adopted in 1913 upon being ratified by three-fourths (36) of the state legislatures
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Eighteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal. The separate Volstead Act
Volstead Act
set down methods for enforcing the Eighteenth Amendment, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes). The Amendment was the first to set a time delay before it would take effect following ratification, and the first to set a time limit for its ratification by the states. President Woodrow Wilson vetoed the bill, but the House of Representatives overrode the veto, and the Senate did so as well the next day
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Twentieth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twentieth Amendment (Amendment XX) to the United States Constitution moved the beginning and ending of the terms of the president and vice president from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3. It also has provisions that determine what is to be done when there is no president-elect. The Twentieth Amendment was adopted on January 23, 1933.[1]Contents1 Text 2 Historical background 3 Proposal and ratification 4 Effect of the amendment 5 References 6 External linksText[edit]Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. Section 2
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Twenty-first Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition
Prohibition
on alcohol on January 16, 1919. The Twenty-first Amendment was ratified on December 5, 1933.[1] It is unique among the 27 amendments of the U.S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a prior amendment and to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions.Contents1 Text 2 Background 3 Proposal and ratification 4 Implementation4.1 State and local control 4.2 Court rulings5 See also 6 References 7 External linksText[edit]Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2
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Twenty-second Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) of the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times a person is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.[1] Congress approved the amendment on March 24, 1947, and submitted it to the state legislatures for ratification. That process was completed on February 27, 1951, after the amendment had been ratified by the requisite 36 of the then-48 states (as neither Alaska nor Hawaii had yet been admitted as states), and its provisions came into force on that date.Contents1 Text 2 Background 3 Proposal and ratification3.1 Proposal in Congress 3.2 Ratification by the states4 Affected individuals 5 Interaction with the Twelfth Amendment 6 Attempts at repeal 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksText[edit]Section 1
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Twenty-third Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-third Amendment (Amendment XXIII) to the United States Constitution extends the right to vote in the presidential election to citizens residing in the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
by granting the District electors in the Electoral College, as if it was a state. The amendment was proposed by the 86th Congress on June 16, 1960. Ratification by the requisite 38 of the 50 states was completed on March 29, 1961. The Electoral College, established in Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution, is the institution that elects the President and Vice President of the United States
President of the United States
every four years. The President and Vice President are not elected directly by the voters. Instead, they are elected by "electors" who are chosen by popular vote on a state-by-state basis
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