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UK Singles Chart
The UK SINGLES CHART (currently entitled OFFICIAL SINGLES CHART) is compiled by the Official Charts Company
Official Charts Company
(OCC), on behalf of the British record industry , listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming . To be eligible for the chart, a single is currently defined by the Official Charts Company
Official Charts Company
(OCC) as either a 'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence. The rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014. The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart
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Radio Luxembourg (English)
RADIO LUXEMBOURG was a multilingual commercial broadcaster in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
. It is known in most non-English languages as RTL (for Radio Television Luxembourg). The English language service of Radio Luxembourg
Luxembourg
began in 1933 as one of the earliest commercial radio stations broadcasting to the UK and Ireland. It was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in the United Kingdom. It was an effective way to advertise products by circumventing British legislation which until 1973 gave the BBC
BBC
a monopoly of radio broadcasting on UK territory and prohibited all forms of advertising over the domestic radio spectrum . It boasted the most powerful privately owned transmitter in the world (1,300 kW broadcasting on medium wave)
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Thank Your Lucky Stars (TV Series)
THANK YOUR LUCKY STARS was a British television pop music show made by ABC Television , and broadcast on ITV from 1961 to 1966. Of all the show's presenters, Brian Matthew is perhaps the best remembered. Many of the top bands performed on it, and for millions of British teenagers it was essential viewing. As well as featuring British artists, it often included American guest stars. It would appear from the surviving footage that the bands mimed their latest 45 . However, there was a period (around 1966) when artistes appearing on TYLS were no longer allowed to mime and were required to perform live. This policy was also adopted at approximately the same time by the BBC's Top of the Pops
Top of the Pops

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ITV (TV Network)
ITV is a commercial TV network in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Launched in 1955 as INDEPENDENT TELEVISION under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority (ITA, then after the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972, Independent Broadcasting Authority , now Ofcom ) to provide competition to the long established BBC
BBC
, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990 its legal name has been CHANNEL 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC
BBC
1 , BBC
BBC
2 and Channel 4 . In part, the number 3 was assigned as television sets would usually be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name
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W H Smith
WHSMITH PLC (also known as WHS or colloquially as SMITH\'S, and formerly W. H. SMITH "> The W. H. Smith logo until the early 1990s, featuring the then-familiar cube of letters, revived in the mid-2010s W. H. Smith signage displaying the modern blue and white design Shop frontage In 1792, Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna established the business as a news vendor in Little Grosvenor Street, London. After their deaths, the business — valued in 1812 at £1,280 (equivalent to £76,886 in 2015) was taken over by their youngest son William Henry Smith , and in 1846 the firm became W. H. SMITH their son inherited the business from his father and the Viscountcy from his mother. After the death of the second Viscount
Viscount
in 1928, the business was reconstituted as a limited company , in which his son, the third Viscount, owned all the ordinary shares
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Point Of Sale
The POINT OF SALE (POS) or POINT OF PURCHASE (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the point of sale, the merchant would calculate the amount owed by the customer and indicate the amount, and may prepare an invoice for the customer (which may be a cash register printout), and indicate the options for the customer to make payment. It is also the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or after provision of a service. After receiving payment, the merchant may issue a receipt for the transaction, which is usually printed, but is increasingly being dispensed with or sent electronically. To calculate the amount owed by a customer, the merchant may use any of a variety of aids available, such as weighing scales , barcode scanners, and cash registers . To make a payment, payment terminals , touch screens, and a variety of other hardware and software options are available
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BMRB Ltd
BMRB LTD (BRITISH MARKET RESEARCH BUREAU LIMITED) was the longest established market research agency in Britain, dating from 1933. The company conducted the following types of research: media, social and public policy, customer, employee and omnibus. TGI ( Target Group Index ) was established by BMRB in 1969. Enlightenment was established in 2005 to provide insight and consultancy for brand owners. BMRB was a key operating company within the Millward Brown Group which, in turn, was part of Kantar Group
Kantar Group
, WPP 's insight, information and consultancy division. In 2009, WPP bought the research group TNS and consolidated all of Kantar's media research units, social research units and omnibus services into three separate companies - Kantar Media , TNS BMRB and TNS Omnibus. In 2016, TNS BMRB became known as Kantar Public. BMRB Ltd no longer exists as a registered company
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BBC
The BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster . Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included. The BBC
BBC
is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up
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Pound Sterling
3p , 4p , 6p , 25p , £5 , Sovereign (British coin) , £20 , £100 , £500 (Silver Kilo), £1,000 (Gold Kilo) DEMOGRAPHICS OFFICIAL USER(S) UNITED KINGDOM 9 British territories * British Antarctic Territory * Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(alongside Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
pound ) * Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(alongside Gibraltar
Gibraltar
pound ) * Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ( Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
; alongside Saint Helena pound in Saint Helena
Saint Helena
and Ascension ) * South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(alongside Falkland Islands pound ) * British Indian Ocean Territory (de jure, U.S
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Punched Card
A PUNCHED CARD or PUNCH CARD is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. The information might be data for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery . Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in what became known as the data processing industry, where specialized and increasingly complex unit record machines , organized into semiautomatic data processing systems , used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data . While punched cards are now obsolete as a recording medium , as of 2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes. A general-purpose punched card from the mid twentieth century
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Barcode Scanners
A BARCODE READER (or BARCODE SCANNER) is an electronic device that can read and output printed barcodes to a computer . Like a flatbed scanner , it consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor translating optical impulses into electrical ones. Additionally, nearly all barcode readers contain decoder circuitry analyzing the barcode's image data provided by the sensor and sending the barcode's content to the scanner's output port. CONTENTS* 1 Types of barcode scanner. * 1.1 Technology * 1.1.1 Pen-type Scanners * 1.1.2 Laser
Laser
scanners * 1.1.3 CCD readers (also known as LED scanners) * 1.1.4 Camera-based readers * 1.1.5 Omnidirectional barcode scanners * 1.1.6 Cell phone cameras * 1.1.7 Smartphones * 1.2 Housing * 2 Methods of connection * 2.1 Early serial interfaces * 2.2 Proprietary interfaces * 2.3 Keyboard wedge (e.g
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Cassette Single
A CASSETTE SINGLE (CS, also known by the trademark "CASSINGLE" or capitalized as the trademark "CASSETTE SINGLE") is a music single in the form of a Compact Cassette
Compact Cassette
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Packaging * 3 Popularity * 4 References HISTORY Bow Wow Wow 's " C·30 C·60 C·90 Go " was the first cassette single, released in the U.K. in 1980, and I.R.S. Records released the first cassette single in the U.S. with the Go-Go\'s "Vacation " in 1982. The ZTT label made good use of the format by 1984, with singles by Frankie Goes to Hollywood , Art of Noise and Propaganda being issued in unique versions on cassette. American record companies began releasing cassette singles on a large scale in 1987, when vinyl record album sales were declining in favor of cassette recordings; the cassette single was meant to replace the 45 record in a similar way
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12-inch Single
The 12-INCH SINGLE (often simply called 12″) is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to typical LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the cutting engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range , and thus better sound quality. This record type is commonly used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in discos or clubs. They are played at either  33 1⁄3 or 45 rpm. CONTENTS * 1 Technical features * 2 History * 2.1 Jamaican roots * 2.2 In the United States * 2.3 Later developments * 3 Maxi-singles * 4 References TECHNICAL FEATURES12-inch singles typically have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch
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The Gallup Organization
GALLUP, INC. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company. Founded by George Gallup
George Gallup
in 1935, the company became known for its public opinion polls conducted worldwide. It provides research and strategic consulting to large organizations in many countries, focusing on "analytics and advice to help leaders and organizations solve their most pressing problems." Some of Gallup's stated key practice areas are employee engagement , customer engagement , talent management, and well-being. Gallup has 30 offices in more than 20 countries, employing about 2,000 people in four divisions: Gallup Poll, Gallup Consulting, Gallup University, and Gallup Press
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World In Action
WORLD IN ACTION was a British investigative current affairs programme made by Granada Television
Granada Television
from 1963 until 1998. Its campaigning journalism frequently had a major impact on events of the day. Its production teams often took audacious risks and gained a solid reputation for its often unorthodox approach. Cabinet ministers fell victim to its probings. Numerous innocent victims of the British criminal justice system, including the Birmingham Six
Birmingham Six
, were released from jail. Honouring the programme in its 50th anniversary awards, the Political Studies Association
Political Studies Association
, said: " World in Action
World in Action
thrived on unveiling corruption and highlighting underhand dealings
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1971 United Kingdom Postal Workers Strike
The 1971 UNITED KINGDOM POSTAL WORKERS STRIKE was a strike in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
staged by postal workers between January and March 1971. CONTENTS * 1 Details * 2 Private posts * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DETAILSThe strike was Britain's first national postal strike and began after postal workers demanded a pay rise of 15-20% then walked out after Post Office managers made a lower offer. The strike began on 20 January and lasted for seven weeks, finally ending with an agreement on Thursday 4 March. After voting over the weekend, the strikers returned to work on Monday 8 March 1971. The strike overlapped with the introduction of decimal currency in the U.K. PRIVATE POSTSA wide range of officially licensed and unlicensed private posts operated during the strike to fill the gap left by the withdrawal of official postal services
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