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U.S. State
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States. There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.[3] State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody)
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Separation Of Powers
The separation of powers, often imprecisely and metonymically used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state. Under this model, a state's government is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in some parliamentary systems where the executive and legislature are unified. Separation of powers, therefore, refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another
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States' Rights
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States
United States
Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment. The enumerated powers that are listed in the Constitution include exclusive federal powers, as well as concurrent powers that are shared with the states, and all of those powers are contrasted with the reserved powers—also called states' rights—that only the states possess.[1][2]Contents1 Background 2 Text 3 Controversy to 18653.1 Alien and Sedition Acts 3.2 Nullification Crisis
Nullification Crisis
of 1832 3.3 Civil War3.3.1 Southern arguments 3.3.2 Northern arguments 3.3.3 Texas
Texas
v
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Republicanism In The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Incorporation (Bill Of Rights)
Incorporation may refer to: Incorporation (business), the creation of a corporation Incorporation (association), giving legal form to an association by registering it as a corporation Incorporation of a place, creation of municipal corporation such as a city or county
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Bicameral
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism
Bicameralism
is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.[1] Often, the members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country. This can often lead to the two chambers having very different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation often requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature. When this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism
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Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area,[1] including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.[2] It typically characterises technical structures such as roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications (including Internet connectivity and broadband speeds), and so forth, and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions."[3] The word infrastructure has been used in English since 1887 and in French since 1875, originally meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".[4][5] The word was imported from French, where it means subgrade, the native material underneath a constructed pavement or railway
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Paroled
Parole is a temporary release of a prisoner who agrees to certain conditions before the completion of the maximum sentence period, originating from the French parole ("voice, spoken words"). The term became associated during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
with the release of prisoners who gave their word. This differs greatly from amnesty or commutation of sentence in that parolees are still considered to be serving their sentences, and may be returned to prison if they violate the conditions of their parole. Conditions of parole often include things such as obeying the law, not voting in an election, refraining from drug and alcohol use, avoiding contact with the parolee's victims, obtaining employment and keeping required appointments with a parole officer. Should the parolee have legal dependents, namely minor children, they are also required to show cause of being a dedicated caregiver
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Sovereignty
Sovereignty
Sovereignty
is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.[1] In international law, the important concept of sovereignty refers to the exercise of power by a state
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Political Union
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states. The process is called unification. Unifications of states that used to be together and are reuniting is referred to as reunification. Unlike a personal union or real union, the individual states share a central government and the union is recognized internationally as a single political entity
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Government
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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Polity
A polity is any kind of political entity. It is a group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force such as identity, who have a capacity to mobilize resources, and are organized by some form of institutionalized hierarchy.[1]Frontispiece of LeviathanContents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksOverview[edit] A polity can be manifested in many different forms, such as a state, an empire, an international organization, a political organisation and other identifiable, resource-manipulating organisational structures. A polity, like a state, does not need to be a sovereign unit
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Ratification
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal. Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation. The institution of ratification grants states the necessary time-frame to seek the required approval for the treaty on the domestic level and to enact the necessary legislation to give domestic effect to that treaty.[1] The term applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutions in federations such as the United States
United States
and Canada
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Federal Republic
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.[1] At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen". In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction
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Freedom Of Movement Under United States Law
Freedom of movement
Freedom of movement
under United States
United States
law is governed primarily by the Privileges and Immunities Clause
Privileges and Immunities Clause
of the United States
United States
Constitution which states, "The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States." As far back as the circuit court ruling in Corfield v. Coryell, 6 Fed. Cas. 546 (1823), freedom of movement has been judicially recognized as a fundamental Constitutional right. In Paul v. Virginia, 75 U.S. 168 (1869), the Court defined freedom of movement as "right of free ingress into other States, and egress from them."[1] However, the Supreme Court did not invest the federal government with the authority to protect freedom of movement
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Texas V. White
Texas
Texas
v. White, 74 U.S. (7 Wall.) 700 (1869) was a case argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869.[1] The case involved a claim by the Reconstruction government of Texas
Texas
that United States bonds owned by Texas
Texas
since 1850 had been illegally sold by the Confederate state legislature during the American Civil War. The state filed suit directly with the United States Supreme Court, which, under the United States Constitution, retains original jurisdiction on certain cases in which a state is a party. In accepting original jurisdiction, the court ruled that, legally speaking, Texas
Texas
had remained a United States state
United States state
ever since it first joined the Union, despite its joining the Confederate States of America and its being under military rule at the time of the decision in the case
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