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Types Of Chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate
is a range of foods derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (e.g., cocoa butter) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery. There are several types of chocolate, classified according to the proportion of cocoa used in a particular formulation. The use of particular name designations is sometimes subject to international governmental regulation
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Chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate
(from náhuatl: xocolātl ) (/ˈtʃɒklɪt, -kəlɪt, -lət, ˈtʃɔːk-/ ( listen)) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs (Mexico), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE.[1] The majority of Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs.[2] The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted
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Flavonoids
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). This carbon structure can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6. According to the IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature,[1][2] they can be classified into:flavonoids or bioflavonoids isoflavonoids, derived from 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure neoflavonoids, derived from 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone) structureThe three flavonoid classes above are all ketone-containing compounds, and as such, are anthoxanthins (flavones and flavonols). This class was the first to be termed bioflavonoids
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Dark Chocolate
Dark chocolate
Dark chocolate
(also known as black chocolate[1] or plain chocolate)[2] is a form of chocolate which contains a higher percentage of cocoa solids and cocoa butter than milk chocolate, and little to no dairy product. Government and industry standards of what products may be labeled "dark chocolate" vary by country and market.[3] Dark chocolate
Dark chocolate
contains antioxidants, such as polyphenols, and is relatively low in sugar
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White Chocolate
White chocolate
White chocolate
is a chocolate derivative. It commonly consists of cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids and is characterized by a pale yellow or ivory appearance. The melting point of cocoa butter, its primary cocoa bean component, is high enough to keep white chocolate solid at room temperature.Contents1 Composition 2 Regulations 3 History 4 See also 5 ReferencesComposition[edit] White chocolate
White chocolate
does not contain non-fat cocoa solids, the primary nutritional constituent of chocolate liquor—chocolate in its raw, unsweetened form.[1][unreliable source?] During manufacture the dark-colored solids of the cocoa bean are separated from its fatty content, as with milk, semi-sweet, and dark chocolate. But, unlike those other chocolate types, the cocoa solids are not recombined. As a result this fat, cocoa butter, is the only cacao ingredient in white chocolate
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Baking Chocolate
Baking
Baking
chocolate, also referred to as bitter chocolate,[1] cooking chocolate[2] and unsweetened chocolate,[3] is a type of chocolate that is prepared or manufactured for baking.[1] It is used as an ingredient in desserts and in baked goods. It is typically prepared in unsweetened,[1] bitter-sweet[2] semi-sweet[4] and sweet varieties.[5] It may be prepared with chocolate liquor or cocoa solids
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Cocoa Powder
Cocoa solids
Cocoa solids
are a mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa butter is extracted from cacao beans. When sold as an end product, it may also be called cocoa powder or cocoa. Cocoa solids
Cocoa solids
are a key ingredient of chocolate, chocolate syrup, and chocolate confections. In contrast, the fatty component of chocolate is cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is 50% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties. Cocoa liquor or cocoa mass is a paste of roasted cocoa beans with cocoa butter and solids in their natural proportions. Recipes for chocolate require the addition of extra cocoa butter to cocoa liquor, leading to a cocoa solids surplus and thus a relatively cheap supply of cocoa powder
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Broma Process
In chocolate making, the Broma process (not to be confused with the Dutch Process), is a method of extracting white cocoa butter from roasted cocoa beans.[1] The Broma process consists of hanging bags of roasted cocoa beans in a very warm room and allowing the cocoa butter, which melts at slightly above room temperature, to melt, drip off the beans, and be collected.[2] The Dutch Process differs from the Broma process in that, after the cocoa butter has been drained off the beans as described above, the beans are then soaked in an alkaline solution to make them chemically neutral. After removal, the cocoa butter can either be used to produce richer bars of chocolate, or, when combined with milk and sugar, to create white chocolate
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Dutch Process Chocolate
Dutch process chocolate
Dutch process chocolate
or Dutched chocolate[1] is chocolate that has been treated with an alkalizing agent to modify its color and give it a milder taste compared to "natural cocoa" extracted with the Broma process.[1] It forms the basis for much of modern chocolate, and is used in ice cream, hot cocoa, and baking.Contents1 History 2 Taste and cooking properties 3 Reduction of antioxidants and flavonols 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Dutch process was developed in the early 19th century by Dutch chocolate maker Coenraad Johannes van Houten, whose father Casparus is responsible for the development of the method of removing fat from cacao beans by hydraulic press around 1828, forming the basis for cocoa powder
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Acidic
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).[1] The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids. In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids. Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid.[2] Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts
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Baking Soda
Sodium
Sodium
bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite
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Alkali
In chemistry, an alkali (/ˈælkəlaɪ/; from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element. An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7.0. The adjective alkaline is commonly, and alkalescent less often, used in English as a synonym for basic, especially for bases soluble in water
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Leavening Agent
A leaven /ˈlɛvən/, often called a leavening agent /ˈlɛvənɪŋ/ (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture. An alternative or supplement to leavening agents is mechanical action by which air is incorporated. Leavening agents can be biological or synthetic chemical compounds. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide, or occasionally hydrogen. When a dough or batter is mixed, the starch in the flour and the water in the dough form a matrix (often supported further by proteins like gluten or polysaccharides, such as pentosans or xanthan gum)
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Organic Chocolate
Organic chocolate
Organic chocolate
is chocolate which has been certified organic. As of 2016, it was a growing sector in the global chocolate industry. organic chocolate is a socially-desirable product for some consumers.[1][2] Major brands, such as The Hershey Company, have begun to produce organic chocolate.[3] Source[edit] Many, if not most, producers of organic chocolate source their ingredients from certified fair trade cocoa farms and cooperatives.[4] Organic chocolate
Organic chocolate
comes in many varieties, including milk chocolate, white chocolate, and dark chocolate
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Lipolysis
Lipolysis
Lipolysis
/lɪˈpɒlɪsɪs/ is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. Predominantly occurring in adipose tissue, lipolysis is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise. Lipolysis
Lipolysis
is directly induced in adipocytes by glucagon,[1] epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol.[2]Contents1 Mechanisms 2 Insulin-induced 3 In blood 4 Lipogenesis 5 Medical procedures 6 References 7 External linksMechanisms[edit]This image illustrates the three separate steps of hydrolysis involved in lipolysis. In the first step, triacylglycerol is hydrolyzed to make diacylglycerol and this is catalyzed by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). In the second step, diacylglycerol is hydrolyzed to make monoacylglycerol and this is catalyzed by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)
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Raw Chocolate
Raw chocolate is chocolate which is produced in a raw or minimally-processed form. It is made from unroasted (sun-dried) cacao beans and cold pressed cacao butter. A variety of crystalline and liquid sweeteners may be used, including: coconut sugar, coconut nectar, xylitol, agave nectar, maple syrup, and stevia. Cane sugar and other highly processed sugars are not used, but this is no evidence of being less harmful.[1] Dairy products are not added to raw chocolate, therefore it is usually vegan. Soy is also usually avoided – soy lecithin is often used in processed chocolate
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