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Types Of Chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate
is a range of foods derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (e.g., cocoa butter ) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery . There are several TYPES OF CHOCOLATE, classified according to the proportion of cocoa used in a particular formulation. The use of particular name designations is sometimes subject to international governmental regulation. Some governments assign chocolate solids and ranges of chocolate differently. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Types * 2.1 By country/region * 2.1.1 United States
United States
* 2.1.2 Canada * 2.1.3 European Union
European Union
* 2.1.4 Japan * 3 Definition * 4 Quality * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links TERMINOLOGYThe cocoa bean (or other alternative) products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world
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Baking Soda
SODIUM BICARBONATE ( IUPAC name : SODIUM HYDROGEN CARBONATE) is a chemical compound with the formula Na HCO3 . It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium
Sodium
bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate ). The natural mineral form is nahcolite . It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs . It is among the food additives encoded by the European Union , identified as E 500
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Alkali
In chemistry , an ALKALI (/ˈælkəlaɪ/ ; from Arabic : al-qaly القلي, القالي , “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic , ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element . An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water . A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7.0. The adjective ALKALINE is commonly, and ALKALESCENT less often, used in English as a synonym for basic, especially for bases soluble in water. This broad use of the term is likely to have come about because alkalis were the first bases known to obey the Arrhenius definition of a base, and they are still among the most common bases
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Leavening Agent
A LEAVEN /ˈlɛvən/ , often called a LEAVENING AGENT /ˈlɛvənɪŋ/ (and also known as a RAISING AGENT), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens. An alternative or supplement to leavening agents is a mechanical action by which air is incorporated. Leavening agents can be biological or synthetic chemical compounds. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide , or occasionally hydrogen
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Acidic
An ACID is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids . In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids . Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid. Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium ) to form salts . The word acid is derived from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour
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Butyric Acid
BUTYRIC ACID (from Greek βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name BUTANOIC ACID, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula C H 3CH2CH2-COOH . Salts and esters of butyric acid are known as BUTYRATES or BUTANOATES. Butyric acid
Butyric acid
is found in milk , especially goat , sheep and buffalo milk, butter , parmesan cheese , and as a product of anaerobic fermentation (including in the colon and as body odor ). It is also suspected to be found in milk chocolate produced by the Hershey process , or added to imitate the flavour of Hershey's chocolate. Butyric acid
Butyric acid
is present in, and is the main distinctive smell of, human vomit . It has an unpleasant smell and acrid taste , with a sweetish aftertaste similar to ether
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Milton S. Hershey
MILTON SNAVELY HERSHEY (September 13, 1857 – October 13, 1945) was an American confectioner and philanthropist. He founded the Hershey Chocolate Company and the "company town " of Hershey, Pennsylvania
Hershey, Pennsylvania
, eventually becoming a great success. As he and his wife had no children, they turned to philanthropy . He was honored by the United States
United States
Postal Service with the issue on September 13, 1995 of a 32¢ Great Americans series (1980–2000) definitive postage stamp (Scott #2933). CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Lancaster Caramel Company * 3 The Hershey Chocolate Company * 4 Philanthropy
Philanthropy
* 5 Close call of the Titanic * 6 World War II
World War II
* 7 Death * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links EARLY LIFEMilton Hershey was born on September 13, 1857 to Henry and Veronica "Fanny" Snavely Hershey
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The Hershey Company
THE HERSHEY COMPANY, known until April 2005 as the HERSHEY FOODS CORPORATION and commonly called HERSHEY\'S, is one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in North America
North America
. Its headquarters are in Hershey, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, which is also home to Hershey\'s Chocolate World . It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the HERSHEY CHOCOLATE COMPANY, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company . Hershey's products are sold in over 60 countries worldwide. In addition, Hershey is a member of the World Cocoa Foundation . It is also associated with the Hersheypark Stadium
Hersheypark Stadium
and the Giant Center
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Trade Secret
A TRADE SECRET is a formula , practice , process , design , instrument , pattern , commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers
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Flavonoids
FLAVONOIDS (or BIOFLAVONOIDS) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites . Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). This carbon structure can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6. According to the IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature, they can be classified into: * flavonoids or bioflavonoids * isoflavonoids , derived from 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone ) structure * neoflavonoids , derived from 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone ) structureThe three flavonoid classes above are all ketone -containing compounds, and as such, are anthoxanthins (flavones and flavonols ). This class was the first to be termed bioflavonoids
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Cake
CAKE is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked . In its oldest forms, cakes were modifications of breads , but cakes now cover a wide range of preparations that can be simple or elaborate, and that share features with other desserts such as pastries , meringues , custards , and pies . Typical cake ingredients are flour , sugar , eggs , butter or oil , a liquid, and leavening agents, such as baking soda or baking powder . Common additional ingredients and flavourings include dried , candied , or fresh fruit , nuts , cocoa , and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can also be filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream ), iced with buttercream or other icings , and decorated with marzipan , piped borders, or candied fruit. Cake
Cake
is often served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, such as weddings , anniversaries , and birthdays
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Scharffen Berger
SCHARFFEN BERGER CHOCOLATE is a line of chocolate produced by Artisan Confections Company, a subsidiary of The Hershey Company
The Hershey Company
. Acquired by Hershey in 2005, it was formerly Scharffen Berger Chocolate
Chocolate
Maker, an independent Berkeley, California
Berkeley, California
-based chocolate maker, founded in 1996 by sparkling wine maker John Scharffenberger and physician Robert Steinberg . The company was a manufacturer of chocolate — as opposed to the far more common chocolatiers , who make their products using chocolate acquired from wholesalers and manufacturers — the first American company founded in the past 50 years to make chocolate "from bean to bar". Scharffen Berger primarily produced chocolate bars, using small-batch processing and focusing on dark chocolate varieties with high cocoa solid content
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Callebaut
CALLEBAUT is a Belgian chocolate brand, owned by the Barry Callebaut group. CONTENTS * 1 About * 2 History * 2.1 Chocolaterie Callebaut
Callebaut
* 2.2 Focus on couverture chocolate * 2.3 Sustainable growth * 3 Innovations * 4 Awards, decorations and certifications * 4.1 Awards and decorations * 4.2 Certifications * 5 Trivia * 6 References * 7 External links ABOUT Callebaut
Callebaut
is a Belgian couverture chocolate manufacturer. Couverture chocolate is chocolate with a high cocoa butter content used by gourmet and culinary professionals. Many professionals who use Callebaut
Callebaut
couverture chocolate use it for its workability and typical taste, which has remained constant over the decades. The company's core chocolate range is manufactured in Belgium
Belgium
from bean to chocolate according to traditional recipes
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Guittard
Coordinates : 37°35′51″N 122°22′46″W / 37.597452°N 122.379557°W / 37.597452; -122.379557 Guittard Chocolate
Chocolate
Company TYPE Family business FOUNDED 1868 (1868) FOUNDER Étienne Guittard HEADQUARTERS Burlingame, California
Burlingame, California
, USA KEY PEOPLE Gary Guittard (president and CEO since 1989) PRODUCTS Couverture chocolate
Couverture chocolate
, Confectionery
Confectionery
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 240 WEBSITE www.guittard.comThe GUITTARD CHOCOLATE COMPANY is an American -based chocolate maker which produces couverture chocolate using original formulas and traditional French methods. The company is headquartered in Burlingame, California
Burlingame, California
. It is the oldest continuously family-owned chocolate company in the United States, family-owned for more than four generations
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Lindt & Sprüngli
CHOCOLADEFABRIKEN LINDT "> David Sprüngli Share of the Chocoladefabrik Lindt & Sprüngli
Lindt & Sprüngli
AG, issued 1. September 1930 The origins of the company date back to 1836, when David Sprüngli-Schwarz and his son Rudolf Sprüngli-Ammann bought a small confectionery shop in the old town of Zürich
Zürich
, producing chocolates under the name David Sprüngli & Son. Two years later, a small factory was added that produced chocolate in solid form. In 1845 they moved to the Paradeplatz . With the retirement of Rudolf Sprüngli-Ammann in 1892, the business was divided between his two sons. The younger brother David Robert received two confectionery stores that became known under the name Confiserie Sprüngli . The elder brother Johann Rudolf received the chocolate factory
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