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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (_species typica_) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus
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Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals . It is also informally known as the ICZN CODE, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature * Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature . This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e
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Type (biology)
In biology, a TYPE is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon . In older usage (pre-1900 in botany), a type was a taxon rather than a specimen. A taxon is a scientifically named grouping of organisms with other like organisms, a set that includes some organisms and excludes others, based on a detailed published description (for example a species description ) and on the provision of type material, which is usually available to scientists for examination in a major museum research collection, or similar institution
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Type Genus
In biological classification , especially zoology , the TYPE GENUS is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name. CONTENTS * 1 Zoological nomenclature * 2 Botanical nomenclature * 3 See also * 4 References ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATUREAccording to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , "The name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon is a nominal genus called the 'type genus'; the family-group name is based upon that of the type genus." Any family-group name must have a type genus (and any genus-group name must have a type species , but any species-group name may, but need not, have one or more type specimens). The type genus for a family-group name is also the genus that provided the stem to which was added the ending -idae (for families)
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Botanical Nomenclature
BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy . Plant
Plant
taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus ' Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
(ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Fossil plants are also covered by the code of nomenclature
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International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And Plants
INTERNATIONAL mostly means something (a company , language , or organization ) involving more than a single country . The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law , which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth
Earth
, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country. CONTENTS * 1 Origin of the word * 2 Meaning in particular fields * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Sources ORIGIN OF THE WORDThe term international was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham in his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation , which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789
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Bacteriology
BACTERIOLOGY is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology , ecology , genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species. A person who studies bacteriology is a BACTERIOLOGIST. CONTENTS * 1 Microbiology * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading MICROBIOLOGYBecause of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa , fungi , and viruses , there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology. The terms were formerly often used interchangeably. However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science. SEE ALSO * Biology * Bacteria * Microbiology REFERENCES * ^ Wassenaar, T. M. "Bacteriology: the study of bacteria". www.mmgc.eu
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Valid Name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature, the VALID NAME of a taxon is the zoological name that is to be used for that taxon following the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). In other words: a valid name is the correct zoological name of a taxon. In contrast, an INVALID NAME is a name that violates the rules of the ICZN. An invalid name is not considered to be a correct scientific name for a taxon. Invalid names may be divided into: * SUBJECTIVELY INVALID NAMES - Names that have been rendered invalid by individual scientific judgement or opinion. Taxonomists may differ in their opinion and names considered invalid by one researcher, can be accepted as valid by another; thus they are still POTENTIALLY VALID NAMES. It includes: * Junior subjective synonyms - synonyms described from different types previously described as separate taxa
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Types In Zoology
In biology, a TYPE is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon . In older usage (pre-1900 in botany), a type was a taxon rather than a specimen. A taxon is a scientifically named grouping of organisms with other like organisms, a set that includes some organisms and excludes others, based on a detailed published description (for example a species description ) and on the provision of type material, which is usually available to scientists for examination in a major museum research collection, or similar institution
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Biological Classification
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals . It is also informally known as the ICZN CODE, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature * Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature . This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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Name-bearing Type
Under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Code), the NAME-BEARING TYPE is the biological type that determines the application of a name. Each taxon regulated by the Code at least potentially has a name-bearing type. The name-bearing type can be either a type genus (family group), type species (genus group), or one or more type specimens (species group). For example, the name Mabuya maculata (Gray, 1839) has often been used for the Noronha skink (currently Trachylepis atlantica), but because the name-bearing type of the former, a lizard preserved in the Muséum national d\'histoire naturelle in Paris, does not represent the same species as the Noronha skink, the name maculata cannot be used for the latter
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Rank (zoology)
In biological classification , TAXONOMIC RANK is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon ) in a taxonomic hierarchy . Examples of taxonomic ranks are species , genus , family , order , class , phylum , kingdom , domain , etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two. Consider a particular species, the red fox , Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: its next rank, the genus Vulpes
Vulpes
, comprises all the "true" foxes
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Genus (biology)
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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