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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus
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Hypericum Aegypticum
Nine total synonyms: * Hypericum
Hypericum
webii * Hypericum
Hypericum
creticum * Hypericum
Hypericum
heterostylum * Triadina aegypticum * Triadina webii * Triadenia aegyptica * Triadenia microphylla * Elodea aegyptica * Elodes aegyptica * Episiphis parvifoliaHYPERICUM AEGYPTICUM, also known as EGYPTIAN SAINT JOHN\'S WORT, is an evergreen shrub or shrublet in the section Adenotrias of the genus Hypericum
Hypericum
. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Size * 1.2 Stem * 1.3 Leaves * 1.4 Inflorescence * 1.4.1 Flowers * 1.4.2 Sepals * 1.4.3 Petals * 1.4.4 Stamens * 1.4.5 Ovaries * 1.5 Seeds * 2 Distribution * 2.1 Habitat * 2.2 Conservational Status * 3 Naming * 3.1 Alternate names * 3.2 Name status * 4 Subspecies * 5 References DESCRIPTIONSIZEThe species grows to be up to two meters tall in the wild
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Hygromia
HYGROMIA is a genus of air-breathing land snails , terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Hygromiidae , the hairy snails and their allies. SPECIESSpecies within the genus Hygromia
Hygromia
include: * Hygromia cinctella Draparnaud, 1801 * Hygromia golasi Prieto & Puente, 1992 * Hygromia limbata
Hygromia limbata
(Draparnaud, 1805) * Hygromia
Hygromia
montana * Hygromia kovacsi Varga "> This Hygromiidae -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Hygromiidae
HYGROMIIDAE is a taxonomic family of small to medium-sized air-breathing land snails , terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicoidea
Helicoidea
. CONTENTS * 1 Anatomy * 2 Taxonomy * 3 Genera * 4 References * 5 External links ANATOMYSome snails in genera within this family create and use love darts as part of their courtship and mating behavior. In this family, the number of haploid chromosomes lies between 26 and 30 (according to the values in this table). TAXONOMYThe family Hygromiidae
Hygromiidae
consists of the following subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda
Gastropoda
by Bouchet Helicopsini H. Nordsieck, 1987 * subfamily Ciliellinae Schileyko, 1970 - synonym: Canariellini Schileyko, 1991* subfamily Geomitrinae C. Boettger, 1909 * tribe Geomitrini C
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Rank (zoology)
In biological classification , TAXONOMIC RANK is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon ) in a taxonomic hierarchy . Examples of taxonomic ranks are species , genus , family , order , class , phylum , kingdom , domain , etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two. Consider a particular species, the red fox , Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: its next rank, the genus Vulpes
Vulpes
, comprises all the 'true foxes'
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Hypericum
c. 490 SYNONYMS List * Adenotrias Jaub. "> From the section Ascyreia: Hypericum hookerianum The genus has a nearly worldwide distribution, missing only from tropical lowlands, deserts and polar regions . All members of the genus may be referred to as St. John's wort, and some are known as tutsan. The white or pink flowered marsh St. John's-worts of North American and eastern Asia are nowadays separated into the genus Triadenum . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Sections * 3 Ecology * 4 Medical properties * 5 Plant
Plant
health problems * 6 Fossil record * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESCRIPTIONThere are 490 individual species in the genus. Hypericums vary from herbaceous annual or perennials 5–10 cm tall to shrubs and small trees up to 12 m tall. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–8 cm long, either deciduous or evergreen
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Paratype
In zoology and botany , a PARATYPE is a specimen of an organism that helps define what the scientific name of a species and other taxon actually represents, but it is not the holotype (and in botany is also neither an isotype nor a syntype ). Often there is more than one paratype. Paratypes are usually held in museum research collections. The exact meaning of the term paratype when it is used in zoology is not the same as the meaning when it is used in botany. In both cases however, this term is used in conjunction with holotype
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Annual Review Of Entomology
ANNUAL REVIEWS, located in Palo Alto
Palo Alto
California
California
, Annual Reviews is a not for profit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. It has a collection of 46 review series in specific disciplines in science and social science. Each review series contains 12 to 40 authoritative comprehensive review articles, covering the major journal articles on a specific topic during the preceding few years. The major topics in each subject are covered every few years, and special topics appear as appropriate. The reviews are widely used in teaching and research, and serve the purposes both of current awareness and introduction to a new subject
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Portable Document Format
The PORTABLE DOCUMENT FORMAT (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software , hardware , and operating systems . Each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts , graphics, and other information needed to display it
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Biological Classification
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Land Snail
A LAND SNAIL is any of the numerous species of snail that live on land, as opposed to sea snails and freshwater snails . Land snail is the common name for terrestrial gastropod mollusks that have shells (those without shells are known as slugs ). However, it is not always easy to say which species are terrestrial, because some are more or less amphibious between land and freshwater, and others are relatively amphibious between land and saltwater. The majority of land snails are pulmonates . That is, they have a lung and breathe air. A minority however belong to much more ancient lineages where their anatomy includes a gill and an operculum . Many of these operculate land snails live in habitats or microhabitats that are sometimes (or often) damp or wet, such as for example in moss . Land snails have a strong muscular foot; they use mucus to enable them to crawl over rough surfaces, and in order to keep their soft bodies from drying out
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International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And Plants
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE FOR ALGAE, FUNGI, AND PLANTS (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". :Preamble, para. 8 It was formerly called the INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne
Melbourne
in July 2011 as part of the Melbourne
Melbourne
Code which replaces the Vienna
Vienna
Code of 2005. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress (on Saturday 23 July 2011), but the documentation of the code in its final form was not finished until some time after the congressional meeting. Preliminary wording of some of the articles with the most significant changes has been published in September 2011
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Cygnus (genus)
6–7 living, see text . SYNONYMS Cygnanser Kretzoi , 1957 SWANS are birds of the family Anatidae
Anatidae
within the genus CYGNUS. The swans' close relatives include the geese and ducks . Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form the tribe CYGNINI. Sometimes, they are considered a distinct subfamily, CYGNINAE. There are six or seven species of swan in the genus Cygnus; in addition there is another species known as the coscoroba swan , although this species is no longer considered one of the true swans. Swans usually mate for life , though "divorce" does sometimes occur, particularly following nesting failure, and if a mate dies, the remaining swan will take up with another. The number of eggs in each clutch ranges from three to eight
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