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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name
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Land Snail
A land snail is any of the numerous species of snail that live on land, as opposed to sea snails and freshwater snails. Land snail
Land snail
is the common name for terrestrial gastropod mollusks that have shells (those without shells are known as slugs). However, it is not always easy to say which species are terrestrial, because some are more or less amphibious between land and freshwater, and others are relatively amphibious between land and saltwater. The majority of land snails are pulmonates. That is, they have a lung and breathe air. A minority however belong to much more ancient lineages where their anatomy includes a gill and an operculum. Many of these operculate land snails live in habitats or microhabitats that are sometimes (or often) damp or wet, such as for example in moss. Land snails have a strong muscular foot; they use mucus to enable them to crawl over rough surfaces and in order to keep their soft bodies from drying out
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Hygromiidae
Hygromiidae
Hygromiidae
is a taxonomic family of small to medium-sized air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicoidea.Contents1 Anatomy 2 Taxonomy 3 Genera 4 References 5 External linksAnatomy[edit] Some snails in genera within this family create and use love darts as part of their courtship and mating behavior. In this family, the number of haploid chromosomes lies between 26 and 30 (according to the values in this table).[1] Taxonomy[edit] The family Hygromiidae
Hygromiidae
consists of the following subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda
Gastropoda
by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005):subfamily Hygromiinae Tryon, 1866tribe Hygromiini Tryon, 1866 - synonym: Cernuellini Schileyko, 1991 tribe Archaicini Schileyko, 1978 tribe Helicellini Ihering, 1909 - synonym: Jacostidae Pilsbry, 1948 (inv.) tribe Leptaxini C
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Rank (zoology)
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy. Examples of taxonomic ranks are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain, etc. A given rank subsumes under it less general categories, that is, more specific descriptions of life forms. Above it, each rank is classified within more general categories of organisms and groups of organisms related to each other through inheritance of traits or features from common ancestors. The rank of any species and the description of its genus is basic; which means that to identify a particular organism, it is usually not necessary to specify ranks other than these first two.[2] Consider a particular species, the red fox, Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes: the next rank above, the genus Vulpes, comprises all the "true" foxes
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Hypericum Aegypticum
Nine total synonyms:[5] Hypericum
Hypericum
webii Hypericum
Hypericum
creticum Hypericum
Hypericum
heterostylum Triadina aegypticum Triadina webii Triadenia aegyptica Triadenia microphylla Elodea aegyptica Elodes aegyptica Episiphis parvifolia Hypericum
Hypericum
aegypticum, also known as Egyptian Saint John's Wort, is an evergreen shrub or shrublet in the section Adenotrias of the genus Hypericum.Contents1 Description1.1 Size 1.2 Stem 1.3 Leaves 1.4 Inflorescence1.4.1 Flowers 1.4.2 Sepals 1.4.3 Petals 1.4.4 Stamens 1.4.5 Ovaries1.5 Seeds2 Distribution2.1 Habitat 2.2 Conservational Status3 Naming3.1 Alternate names 3.2 Name status4 Subspecies 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] Size[edit] The species grows to be up to two meters tall in the wild
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Hypericum
c. 490SynonymsListAdenotrias Jaub.
Jaub.
& Spach Androsaemum Duhamel Androsemum Link Ascyrum L. Lianthus N.Robson Olympia Spach Sanidophyllum Small Sarothra L. Takasagoya Y.Kimura Triadenia Spach Hypericum
Hypericum
/ˌhaɪˈpiːrɪkəm/ is a genus of flowering plants in the family Hypericaceae
Hypericaceae
(formerly considered a subfamily of Clusiaceae). Hypericum
Hypericum
is unusual for a genus of its size because a worldwide taxonomic monograph[1] was produced for it by Norman Robson (working at the Natural History Museum, London). Robson recognizes 36 sections within Hypericum.From the section Ascyreia: Hypericum
Hypericum
hookerianumThe genus has a nearly worldwide distribution, missing only from tropical lowlands, deserts and polar regions. All members of the genus may be referred to as St
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Biological Classification
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Paratype
In zoology and botany, a paratype is a specimen of an organism that helps define what the scientific name of a species and other taxon actually represents, but it is not the holotype (and in botany is also neither an isotype nor a syntype). Often there is more than one paratype. Paratypes are usually held in museum research collections. The exact meaning of the term paratype when it is used in zoology is not the same as the meaning when it is used in botany
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Valid Name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature, the valid name of a taxon is the zoological name that is to be used for that taxon following the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).[1] In other words: a valid name is the correct zoological name of a taxon.[2] In contrast, an invalid name is a name that violates the rules of the ICZN. An invalid name is not considered to be a correct scientific name for a taxon. Invalid names may be divided into:[3]Subjectively invalid names - Names that have been rendered invalid by individual scientific judgement or opinion. Taxonomists may differ in their opinion and names considered invalid by one researcher, can be accepted as valid by another; thus they are still potentially valid names
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Bacteriology
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species.[1] Because of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa, fungi, and viruses, there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology.[2] The terms were formerly often used interchangeably.[3].However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science.Contents1 Introduction 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingIntroduction[edit] Bacteriology is the study of bacteria and their relation to medicine. Bacteriology evolved from physicians needing to apply the germ theory to test the concerns relating to the spoilage of foods and wines in the 18th century
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International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And Plants
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".[1]:Preamble, para. 8 It was formerly called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress
International Botanical Congress
in Melbourne
Melbourne
in July 2011 as part of the Melbourne
Melbourne
Code which replaces the Vienna
Vienna
Code of 2005. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress (on Saturday 23 July 2011), but the documentation of the code in its final form was not finished until some time after the congressional meeting
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Botanical Nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. Plant
Plant
taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus' Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
of 1753. Botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)
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Portable Document Format
The Portable Document
Document
Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.[3][4] Based on the PostScript
PostScript
language, each PDF file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it
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Annual Review Of Entomology
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society. It has a collection of 46 review series in specific disciplines in science and social science.[1] Each review series contains 12 to 40 authoritative comprehensive review articles, covering the major journal articles on a specific topic during the preceding few years. The major topics in each subject are covered every few years, and special topics appear as appropriate. The reviews are widely used in teaching and research, and serve the purposes both of current awareness and introduction to a new subject
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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