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Type 88 Surface-to-Ship Missile
The TYPE 88 SURFACE-TO-SHIP MISSILE (88式地対艦誘導弾, SSM-1) is a truck-mounted anti-ship missile developed by Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in the late 1980s. It is a land-based version of the air-launched Type 80 (ASM-1) missile ; in turn it was developed into the ship-launched Type 90 (SSM-1B) missile . The Japan
Japan
Ground Self-Defense Force bought 54 transporter erector launchers , each carrying six Type 88 missiles, for use as coastal batteries . With a range of 180 km (97 nmi), high subsonic speed and 225 kg (496 lb) warhead, it is similar to the US Harpoon missile. In 2015, an upgrade of the Type 88 became operational called the Type 12 . The Type 12 features INS with mid-course GPS
GPS
guidance and better precision due to enhanced contour/terrain matching and target discrimination capabilities. The weapon is networked, where initial and mid-course targeting can be provided by other platforms, and also boasts shorter reload times, reduced lifecycle costs, and a range of 124 mi (108 nmi; 200 km). OVERVIEW Radar vehicle (JTPS-P15) The basic configuration composes the same launcher vehicles and loader vehicles (6 SSM-1), some radar vehicles, fire control systems, and a command control system. Usually, the SSM-1 is launched from within 100 km (62 mi) of the target
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 _Nippon-koku_ _Nihon-koku_ _ Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo _" * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * _ * Go-Shichi no Kiri_ (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan shown in green; claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
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Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD. (三菱重工業株式会社, _ Mitsubishi Jūkōgyō Kabushiki-kaisha_, informally MHI) is a Japanese multinational engineering , electrical equipment , and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo , Japan. MHI's products include aerospace components, air conditioners, aircraft, automotive components, forklift trucks, hydraulic equipment, machine tools, missiles, power generation equipment, ships, and space launch vehicles . Through its defense-related activities it is the world's 23rd-largest defense contractor measured by 2011 defense revenues, and the largest based in Japan. MHI is one of the core companies of the Mitsubishi Group . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Operations * 2.1 Aerospace * 2.2 Defense * 2.2.1 Missiles * 2.3 Energy * 2.4 Shipbuilding * 2.5 Wind power * 3 Products * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY The Big Cranes at The Mitsubishi Dockyard Nagasaki, Meiji Period In 1857, at the request of the Tokugawa Shogunate , a group of Dutch engineers began work on the _Nagasaki Yotetsusho_, a modern, Western-style foundry and shipyard near the Dutch settlement of Dejima , at Nagasaki . This was renamed _Nagasaki Seitetsusho_ in 1860, and construction was completed in 1861
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Turbojet
The TURBOJET is an airbreathing jet engine , usually used in aircraft. It consists of a gas turbine with a propelling nozzle . The gas turbine has an air inlet, a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine (that drives the compressor). The compressed air from the compressor is heated by the fuel in the combustion chamber and then allowed to expand through the turbine. The turbine exhaust is then expanded in the propelling nozzle where it is accelerated to high speed to provide thrust. Two engineers, Frank Whittle in the United Kingdom and Hans von Ohain in Germany , developed the concept independently into practical engines during the late 1930s. Turbojets have been replaced in slower aircraft by turboprops because they have better range-specific fuel consumption . At medium speeds, where the propeller is no longer efficient, turboprops have been replaced by turbofans . The turbofan is quieter and has better range-specific fuel consumption than the turbojet. Turbojets are still common in medium range cruise missiles , due to their high exhaust speed, small frontal area, and relative simplicity. Turbojets have poor efficiency at low vehicle speeds, which limits their usefulness in vehicles other than aircraft. Turbojet engines have been used in isolated cases to power vehicles other than aircraft, typically for attempts on land speed records
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Inertial Guidance
An INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer , motion sensors (accelerometers ) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes ) to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references. It is used on vehicles such as ships , aircraft , submarines , guided missiles , and spacecraft . Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or closely related devices include INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM, INERTIAL INSTRUMENT, inertial measurement units (IMU) and many other variations. Older INS systems generally used an inertial platform as their mounting point to the vehicle, and the terms are sometimes considered synonymous
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Active Radar Homing
ACTIVE RADAR HOMING (ARH) is a missile guidance method in which a missile contains a radar transceiver (in contrast to semi-active radar homing , which uses only a receiver ) and the electronics necessary for it to find and track its target autonomously. NATO brevity code for an air-to-air active radar homing missile launch is FOX THREE. CONTENTS * 1 Advantages * 2 Passive radiation homing * 3 Operation * 4 List of missiles * 4.1 China * 4.2 European * 4.3 France * 4.4 Germany * 4.5 India * 4.6 Israel * 4.7 Japan * 4.8 Russia * 4.9 South Africa * 4.10 Sweden * 4.11 Taiwan * 4.12 United States * 5 References ADVANTAGESThere are two major advantages to active radar homing: * Because the missile is tracking the target, and the missile is typically going to be much closer to the target than the launching platform during the terminal phase, the tracking can be much more accurate and also have better resistance to ECM . Active radar homing missiles have some of the best kill probabilities , along with missiles employing track-via-missile guidance. * Because the missile is totally autonomous during the terminal phase, the launch platform does not need to have its radar enabled at all during this phase, and in the case of a mobile launching platform like an aircraft, can actually exit the scene or undertake other actions while the missile homes in on its target
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Anti-ship Missile
ANTI-SHIP MISSILES are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea skimming variety, and many use a combination of inertial guidance and active radar homing . A good number of other anti-ship missiles use infrared homing to follow the heat that is emitted by a ship; it is also possible for anti-ship missiles to be guided by radio command all the way. The first anti-ship missiles, which were developed and built by Nazi Germany , used radio command guidance. These saw some success in the Mediterranean Theater in 1943–44, sinking or heavily damaging at least 31 ships with the Henschel Hs 293 and more than seven with the _ Fritz X _, such as the Italian battleship _Roma_ or the cruiser USS _Savannah_ . A variant of the HS 293 had a TV transmitter on board. The bomber carrying it could then fly outside the range of naval AA guns and use TV guidance to lead the missile to its target by radio control
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Type 80 Air-to-Ship Missile
TYPE 80 AIR-TO-SHIP MISSILE (80式空対艦誘導弾, ASM-1) is an air-launched Air-to-ship missile developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries . It entered service with the Japan Air Self-Defense Force in 1980. The major launch platforms for the Type 80 are the Mitsubishi F-1 , JASDF F-4EJ Kai and Mitsubishi F-2 . The missile is primarily intended as an air-launched coastal defence weapon. In fact it is somewhat more capable than this, able to engage both sea and land targets such as buildings and bridges. The Type 80 also serves as the basis of several other weapons; it forms part of the ground-launched SSM-1 system and was also developed into the Type 88 SSM (Surface-to-Ship Missile), the Type 90 SSM (Ship-to-Ship Missile), and the 91 and 93 ASMs (Air-to-Ship Missile). The ASM-1 will be replaced by the XASM-3 currently in development
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Type 90 Ship-to-ship Missile
In modern language, a MISSILE is a self-propelled precision-guided munition system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided ). Missiles have four system components: targeting or missile guidance , flight system, engine, and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles (ballistic , cruise , anti-ship , anti-tank , etc.), surface-to-air missiles (and anti-ballistic ), air-to-air missiles , and anti-satellite weapons . All known existing missiles are designed to be propelled during powered flight by chemical reactions inside a rocket engine , jet engine , or other type of engine. Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are generally referred to as shells and usually have a shorter range than missiles. In ordinary British-English usage predating guided weapons, a missile is "any thrown object ", such as objects thrown at players by rowdy spectators at a sporting event
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Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
The JAPAN GROUND SELF-DEFENSE FORCE (陸上自衛隊, _Rikujō Jieitai_), or JGSDF, is the main branch of the Japan
Japan
Self-Defense Forces , responsible for land-based military operations, and is the _de facto _ army of Japan
Japan
. Created on July 1, 1954, it is the largest of the three services of the Japan
Japan
Self-Defense Forces. New military guidelines, announced in December 2010, direct the Self-Defense Forces away from their Cold War focus on the Soviet Union to a new focus on China, especially in respect of the dispute over the Senkaku Islands. The JGSDF is chiefly tasked with maintaining internal security in Japan. The Force operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichigaya , Shinjuku
Shinjuku
, Tokyo
Tokyo
. The present chief of staff is General Toshiya Okabe (Japanese : 岡部 俊哉). The JGSDF numbered around 150,000 soldiers in 2008. As of 2010, the number remained the same at approximately 150,000 personnel. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Today * 2.1 Personnel * 2.2 Equipment * 3 Organization * 3.1 Armies * 3.2 Other units * 3.3 Tactical organization * 3.4 Special
Special
Forces * 4 Ranks * 4.1 Officers(幹部) * 4.2 Warrant Officer "> JGSDF soldiers from the 22nd Infantry Regiment train with U.S
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Transporter Erector Launcher
A TRANSPORTER ERECTOR LAUNCHER (TEL) is a missile vehicle with an integrated prime mover that can carry, elevate to firing position and launch one or more missiles . Such vehicles exist for both surface-to-air missiles and surface-to-surface missiles . Early such missiles were launched from fixed sites and had to be loaded onto trucks for transport, making them more vulnerable to attack since once they were spotted by the enemy they could not easily be relocated, and if they were it often took hours or even days to prepare them for launch once they reached their new site. A TRANSPORTER ERECTOR LAUNCHER AND RADAR (TELAR) is the same as a TEL but also incorporates part or all of the radar system necessary for firing the surface-to-air missile (s). Such vehicles have the capability of being autonomous, greatly enhancing their effectiveness. With this type of system each vehicle can fight regardless of the state or presence of support vehicles. The TEL or TELAR may have a rotating turntable that it can use to aim the missiles. The vehicle may have to turn to aim the missiles or they may fire straight up. Conversely, a TRANSPORTER LAUNCHER AND RADAR (TLAR) is the same as a TELAR without the erector capability, because the missile in question is transported in the launch-ready position. An example is the 9K330 Tor , which mounts a Vertical Launching System -style block of SAMs
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Coastal Batteries
COASTAL ARTILLERY is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications . From the Middle Ages until World War II , coastal artillery and naval artillery in the form of cannon were highly important to military affairs and generally represented the areas of highest technology and capital cost among materiel . The advent of 20th-century technologies, especially military aviation , naval aviation , jet aircraft , and guided missiles , reduced the primacy of cannon, battleships, and coastal artillery. In countries where coastal artillery has not been disbanded, these forces have acquired amphibious capabilities. In littoral warfare , mobile coastal artillery armed with surface-to-surface missiles still can be used to deny the use of sea lanes . It was long held as a rule of thumb that one shore-based gun equaled three naval guns of the same caliber, due to the steadiness of the coastal gun which allowed for significantly higher accuracy than their sea-mounted counterparts. Land-based guns also benefited in most cases from the additional protection of walls or earth mounds. The range of gun powder based coastal artillery also has a derivative role in international law "> 50-pounder Model 1811 Columbiad (7.25 inch or 184 mm bore) and center-pivot mounting designed by George Bomford as an experimental coastal defense gun
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Harpoon (missile)
multi-platform: * RGM-84A surface-launched * AGM-84A air-launched * UGM-84A submarine-launchedThe HARPOON is an all-weather, over-the-horizon , anti-ship missile system, developed and manufactured by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing Defense, Space * Coastal defense batteries, from which it would be fired with a solid-fuel rocket booster.CONTENTS* 1 Development * 1.1 Harpoon Block 1D * 1.2 SLAM ATA (Block 1G) * 1.3 Harpoon Block 1J * 1.4 Harpoon Block II * 1.5 Harpoon Block III * 1.6 Harpoon Block II+ ER * 2 Operational history * 3 Operators * 3.1 Operators * 4 General characteristics * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEVELOPMENT The USS Coronado (LCS-4) launches the first over-the-horizon missile engagement using a Harpoon Block 1C missile during the Rim of the Pacific Exercise (RIMPAC) 2016 in the Pacific Ocean, July 21, 2016. In 1965 the United States Navy began studies for a missile in the 45 kilometres (24 nmi) range class for use against surfaced submarines . The name Harpoon was assigned to the project (i.e. a harpoon to kill "whales", a naval slang term for submarines). The sinking of the Israeli destroyer Eilat in 1967 by a Soviet-built Styx anti-ship missile shocked senior United States Navy officers, who until then had not been conscious of the threat posed by anti-ship missiles
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Type 12 Surface-to-Ship Missile
The TYPE 12 SURFACE-TO-SHIP MISSILE (12式地対艦誘導弾) is a truck-mounted anti-ship missile developed by Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 2012. It is an upgrade of the Type 88 Surface-to-Ship Missile . The Type 12 features INS with mid-course GPS guidance and better precision due to enhanced contour/terrain matching and target discrimination capabilities. The weapon is networked, where initial and mid-course targeting can be provided by other platforms, and also boasts shorter reload times, reduced lifecycle costs, and a range of 124 mi (108 nmi; 200 km)
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GPS
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS), originally NAVSTAR GPS, is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The GPS system does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS system provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was launched by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973 for use by the United States military and became fully operational in 1995. It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS and implement the next generation of GPS Block IIIA satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX)
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Vehicle
A VEHICLE (from Latin : vehiculum ) is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo . Typical vehicles include wagons , bicycles , motor vehicles (motorcycles , trucks , buses ), railed vehicles (trains , trams ), watercraft (ships , boats ), aircraft and spacecraft . Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled , tracked , railed or skied . ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, also internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms and definitions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Most popular vehicles * 3 Locomotion * 3.1 Energy source * 3.2 Motors and engines * 3.3 Converting energy to work * 3.4 Friction
Friction
* 4 Control * 4.1 Steering
Steering
* 4.2 Stopping * 5 Legislation * 5.1 European Union * 5.2 Licensing * 5.3 Registration * 5.4 Mandatory safety equipment * 6 Right-of-way * 7 Safety * 8 See also * 9 References HISTORY This article may REQUIRE CLEANUP to meet's quality standards
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