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Twin
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.[1] Twins can be either monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they develop from one zygote, which splits and forms two embryos, or dizygotic ("fraternal"), meaning that they develop from two different eggs
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Sperm
Sperm
Sperm
is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a spermatium. Sperm
Sperm
cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent zygote. The human sperm cell is haploid, so that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes of the female egg to form a diploid cell
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Amniotic Sac
The amniotic sac, commonly called the bag of waters,[1] sometimes the membranes,[2] is the sac in which the fetus develops in amniotes. It is a thin but tough transparent pair of membranes that hold a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. The inner of these fetal membranes, the amnion, encloses the amniotic cavity, containing the amniotic fluid and the fetus. The outer membrane, the chorion, contains the amnion and is part of the placenta
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In Vitro Fertilization
In vitro
In vitro
fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, and is then transferred to the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy, in which a fertilised egg is implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. Some countries banned or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism
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Embryo Transfer
Embryo
Embryo
transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy
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Chromosome
A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA
DNA
molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle.[1][2] Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form).[3] Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends
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Phenotype
A phenotype (from Greek phainein, meaning 'to show', and typos, meaning 'type') is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results from the expression of an organism's genetic code, its genotype, as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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Ovulation
Ovulation
Ovulation
is the release of eggs from the ovaries. In humans, this event occurs when the follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells.[1] After ovulation, during the luteal phase, the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm. In addition, the uterine lining (endometrium) is thickened to be able to receive a fertilized egg. If no conception occurs, the uterine lining as well as blood will be shed during menstruation.[2]Contents1 In humans1.1 Follicular phase 1.2 Ovulation 1.3 Luteal phase2 Clinical presentation 3 Disorders 4 Induction and suppression4.1 Induced ovulation 4.2 Suppressed ovulation5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further readingIn humans[edit] Ovulation
Ovulation
occurs about midway through the menstrual cycle, after the follicular phase, and is followed by the luteal phase
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Placenta
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy. The placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to growing fetuses and removes waste products from the fetus's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus, and the fetus's umbilical cord develops from the placenta. These organs connect the mother and the fetus
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Chromosomal Crossover
Chromosomal crossover
Chromosomal crossover
(or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction. It is one of the final phases of genetic recombination, which occurs in the pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis during a process called synapsis. Synapsis begins before the synaptonemal complex develops and is not completed until near the end of prophase I. Crossover usually occurs when matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosome. Crossing over was described, in theory, by Thomas Hunt Morgan. He relied on the discovery of Frans Alfons Janssens
Frans Alfons Janssens
who described the phenomenon in 1909 and had called it "chiasmatypie". The term chiasma is linked, if not identical, to chromosomal crossover
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Ovum
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is typically not capable of active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells. When egg and sperm fuse, a diploid cell (the zygote) is formed, which rapidly grows into a new organism.Contents1 History 2 Animals2.1 Human and mammal ova 2.2 Ooplasm 2.3 Ova development in oviparous animals 2.4 Ovoviviparity3 Plants 4 Other organisms 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] While the non-mammalian animal egg was obvious, the doctrine ex ova omne vivum ("every living [animal comes from] an egg"), associated with William Harvey
William Harvey
(1578-1657), was a rejection of spontaneous generation and preformationism as well as a bold assumption that mammals also reproduced via eggs
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Meiosis
Meiosis
Meiosis
(from Greek μειώσεις, meiosis, which means lessening) /maɪˈoʊsɪs/ ( listen) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.[1] This process occurs in all sexually reproducing single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes, including animals, plants, and fungi.[2][3][4][5] Errors in meiosis resulting in aneuploidy are the leading known cause of miscarriage and the most frequent genetic cause of developmental disabilities.[6] In meiosis, DNA replication
DNA replication
is followed by two rounds of cell division to produce four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original parent cell.[1] The two meiotic divisions are known as Meiosis
Meiosis
I and Meiosis
Meiosis
II
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Ovary
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilised by a sperm. There is an ovary (from Latin
Latin
ovarium, meaning egg/nut) found on the left and the right side of the body. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause
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Phytoestrogen
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants. Also called "dietary estrogens", they are a diverse group of naturally occurring nonsteroidal plant compounds that, because of their structural similarity with estradiol (17-β-estradiol), have the ability to cause estrogenic or/and antiestrogenic effects,[1] by sitting in and blocking receptor sites against estrogen.[2]Chemical structures of the most common phytoestrogens found in plants (top and middle) compared with estrogen (bottom) found in animals.Their name comes from the Greek phyto ("plant") and estrogen, the hormone which gives fertility to female mammals. The word "estrus" - Greek οίστρος - means "sexual desire", and "gene" - Greek γόνο - is "to generate"
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Yam (vegetable)
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.[1] Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and subtropical world regions.[1] The tubers themselves are also called "yams", having numerous cultivars and related species.[1] In parts of the United States and Canada, "yam" is sometimes used to refer to varieties of the unrelated sweet potato ( Ipomoea
Ipomoea
batatas).Contents1 Etymology1.1 Other uses of the term yam2 Description 3 Cultivation3.1 Major cultivars3.1.1 D. rotundata and D. cayenensis 3.1.2 D. alata 3.1.3 D. polystachya 3.1.4 D. bulbifera 3.1.5 D. esculenta 3.1.6 D. dumetorum 3.1.7 D
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