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Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
(TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(MTB).[1]
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X-ray
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays
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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.[1] Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient, or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, acute bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold). More generally, a differential diagnostic procedure is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible
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Fever
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response,[6] is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.[4][5] There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C (99.5 and 100.9 °F).[6][7] The increase in set-point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold.[1] This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat.[2] When the set-point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed, and may begin to sweat.[2] Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure.[3] This is more common in young children.[3] Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C (105.8 to 107.6 °F).[5] A fever can be caused by many medical conditions ranging from non serious to life threatening.[11] This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections
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Sneeze
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane.[1] Sneezing is possibly linked to sudden exposure to bright light, sudden change (fall) in temperature, breeze of cold air, a particularly full stomach, or viral infection, and can lead to the spread of disease. The function of sneezing is to expel mucus containing foreign particles or irritants and cleanse the nasal cavity. During a sneeze, the soft palate and palatine uvula depress while the back of the tongue elevates to partially close the passage to the mouth so that air ejected from the lungs may be expelled through the nose
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Tobacco Smoking
Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.) The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
and South America.[1] Tobacco
Tobacco
was introduced to Eurasia
Eurasia
in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes
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Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect"
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Microscopic
The microscopic scale (from Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.[1] In physics, the microscopic scale is sometimes considered the scale between the macroscopic and the quantum realm.[2][3] Microscopic units and measurements are used to classify and describe very small objects. One common microscopic length scale unit is the Micrometer (μm) - one millionth of 1 meter. Biology[edit] By convention, the microscopic scale also includes classes of objects that are most commonly too small to see but of which some members are large enough to be observed with the eye. Such groups include the Cladocera, planktonic green algae of which Volvox
Volvox
is readily observable, and the protozoa of which stentor can be easily seen without aid
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Microbiological Culture
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium
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Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
(/kɒkˌsɪdiɔɪdoʊmaɪˈkoʊsɪs/, kok-sid-ee-oy-doh-my-KOH-sis), commonly known as "cocci",[1] "Valley fever",[1] as well as " California
California
fever",[2] "desert rheumatism",[2] and " San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley
fever",[2] is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis
Coccidioides immitis
or Coccidioides
Coccidioides
posadasii.[3] Coccidioidomycosis
Coccidioidomycosis
is endemic in certain parts of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and northern Mexico.[4] C. immitis is a dimorphic saprophytic fungus that grows as a mycelium in the soil and produces a spherule form in the host organism
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Antibiotic Resistance
Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial
resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat them.[2][3][4] The term includes the more specific antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR), which applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics.[3] Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses, both of which may be more expensive or more toxic
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Weight Loss
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss
Weight loss
can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state
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Ancient History
Ancient history
Ancient history
is the aggregate of past events[1] from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Post-classical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.[2] The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World
Old World
from the beginning of recorded Greek history
Greek history
in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece
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Chills
Chills is a feeling of coldness occurring during a high fever, but sometimes is also a common symptom which occurs alone in specific people. It occurs during fever due to the release of cytokines and prostaglandins as part of the inflammatory response, which increases the set point for body temperature in the hypothalamus. The increased set point causes the body temperature to rise (pyrexia), but also makes the patient feel cold or chills until the new set point is reached. Shivering also occurs along with chills because the patient's body produces heat during muscle contraction in a physiological attempt to increase body temperature to the new set point
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Microbial Culture
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium
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Diagnostic Method
Medical diagnosis
Medical diagnosis
(abbreviated Dx[1] or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example, redness of the skin (erythema), by itself, is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed
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