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True Parrot
Psittacidae Psittrichasiidae Psittaculidae
Psittaculidae
The TRUE PARROTS are about 350 species of colorful flighted (with a few notable exceptions ) hook-billed, mostly herbivorous birds forming the superfamily PSITTACOIDEA, one of the three superfamilies in the biological order Psittaciformes (parrots). True parrots are widespread, with species in Mexico
Mexico
, Central and South America , sub-Saharan Africa , India
India
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, Australia
Australia
, and eastwards across the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
as far as Polynesia
Polynesia
. The true parrots include many of the familiar parrots including macaws , conures , lorikeets , eclectus , Amazon parrots , African gray parrot , and budgerigar . CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Distribution and habitat * 2 Conservation status * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Species lists * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 Notes * 8 External links OVERVIEW This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Blue-and-yellow Macaw
The BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW (Ara ararauna), also known as the BLUE-AND-GOLD MACAW, is a large South American parrot with blue top parts and yellow under parts. It is a member of the large group of neotropical parrots known as macaws . It inhabits forest (especially varzea , but also in open sections of terra firme or unflooded forest) and woodland of tropical South America . They are popular in aviculture because of their striking color, ability to talk, ready availability in the marketplace, and close bonding to humans. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Description * 3 Distribution and habitat * 4 Breeding * 5 Conservation and threats * 6 Aviculture * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links TAXONOMYThe blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) is a member of the genus Ara (Lacepede 1799), one of six genera of Central and South American macaws. The species name is derived from Tupi ara onamatopoeia macao: macaw; Tupi arara: parrot +una: dark or black, hence "dark parrot/macaw". DESCRIPTION Jurong Bird Park These birds can reach a length of 76–86 cm (30–34 in) and weigh 0.900–1.5 kg (2–3 lb), making them some of the larger members of their family. They are vivid in appearance with blue-green wings and tail, dark-blue chin, golden under parts, and a green forehead. Their beaks are black
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Jurong Bird Park
JURONG BIRD PARK is an aviary and tourist attraction in Jurong
Jurong
, Singapore
Singapore
. The bird park, managed by Wildlife Reserves Singapore
Singapore
, covers an area of 0.2 square kilometres (49 acres) on the western slope of Jurong
Jurong
Hill , the highest point in the Jurong
Jurong
region. It was reported by Wildlife Reserves Singapore
Singapore
on 1 June 2016 that Jurong
Jurong
Bird Park will cease operations and be relocated to Mandai in 2020. The new park in Mandai has not been named. As for now, operation continues as per normal. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Exhibits * 2.1 African Waterfall Aviary
Aviary
* 2.2 Dinosaur Descendants * 2.3 Wings of Asia * 2.4 Lory Loft * 2.5 Penguin Coast * 2.6 World of Darkness * 2.7 Pelican
Pelican
Cove * 3 Shows * 3.1 High Flyers Show * 3.2 Kings of the Skies Show * 3.3 Lunch with the Parrots * 4 List of birds * 5 Awards * 6 Transport * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links HISTORY Caribbean flamingos at Jurong
Jurong
Bird Park The idea of a permanent aviary was first conceived by the late Dr Goh Keng Swee , then Minister for Finance, in 1968
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa. The Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata , consisting of chordates with a skull ; the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish of the superclass Osteichthyes . The world's largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans . Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics . The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs , though a 2017 paper has put them in a proposed clade Ornithoscelida , along with the Ornithischia . True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, around 120 million years ago. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which reduced the Pterosaurs , and killed off all the non-avian dinosaur lineages
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Parrot
Cacatuoidea (cockatoos) Psittacoidea (true parrots) Strigopoidea ( New Zealand parrots) Range of parrots, all species (red)PARROTS, also known as PSITTACINES /ˈsɪtəsaɪnz/ , are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order PSITTACIFORMES, found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three superfamilies: the Psittacoidea ("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea (cockatoos), and the Strigopoidea (New Zealand parrots). Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere , as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is in South America and Australasia . Characteristic features of parrots include a strong, curved bill , an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. Most parrots exhibit little or no sexual dimorphism in the visual spectrum. They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length. The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds, and other plant material. A few species sometimes eat animals and carrion , while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding on floral nectar and soft fruits
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Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger
JOHANN KARL WILHELM ILLIGER (19 November 1775 – 10 May 1813) was a German entomologist and zoologist . Illiger was the son of a merchant in Braunschweig
Braunschweig
. He studied under the entomologist Johann Hellwig , and later worked on the zoological collections of Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg . Illiger was professor and director of the zoological museum in Berlin
Berlin
from its formation in 1810 until his death. He was the author of "Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium" (1811), which was an overhaul of the Linnaean system. It was a major influence on the adoption of the concept of the "family ". He also edited the "Magazin für Insektenkunde", widely known as "Illiger's Magazine". In 1811 he introduced the taxonomic order Proboscidea for elephants , the American mastodon and the wooly mammoth . He also described the subspecies Odobenus rosmarus divergens , commonly known as the Pacific walrus. Illiger\'s macaw (Promolius maracana; Vieillot , 1816) and Illiger\'s saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri; Pucheran , 1845) commemorate his name. The botanical genus Illigera (family Hernandiaceae ) also bears his name
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Psittacidae
Psittacinae Arinae The family PSITTACIDAE is one of three families of true parrots . It comprises the approximately 10 species of subfamily Psittacinae (the Old World or Afrotropical parrots) and 148 species of subfamily Arinae (the New World
New World
or Neotropical parrots), as well as several species that have gone extinct in recent centuries. Some of the most iconic birds in the world are represented here, such as the blue-and-gold macaw among the New World
New World
parrots and the African grey parrot among the Old World parrots. These parrots are found in tropical and subtropical zones and inhabit Mexico
Mexico
, Central and South America
South America
, the Caribbean islands
Caribbean islands
, sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
, and the Arabian Peninsula . Two parrots, one extinct , formerly inhabited North America
North America
. This family probably had its origin early in the Paleogene period (66–23 mya ) after the western half of Gondwana
Gondwana
had separated into the continents of Africa and South America, before the divergence of African and New World
New World
lineages c. 30–35 mya
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Psittrichasiidae
Psittrichasinae Coracopsinae The parrot family PSITTRICHASIIDAE consists of two subfamilies, the Psittrichasinae and Coracopsinae , which are found on New Guinea
New Guinea
and the Indian Ocean Islands , respectively. Most taxonomists place the family with the old world parrots, the Psittaculidae
Psittaculidae
. This article relating to parrots is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Psittrichasiidae additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Psittaculidae
Platycercinae Psittacellinae Loriinae Agapornithinae Psittaculinae Coracopsinae Psittrichasinae The parrot family PSITTACULIDAE consists of seven subfamilies, the Platycercinae , Psittacellinae , Loriinae , Agapornithinae , Psittaculinae , Coracopsinae , and Psittrichasinae . This family has been accepted into The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World in 2014, and the IOC World Bird
Bird
List . REFERENCES * ^ "Updates & Corrections – August 2014 Clements Checklist". www.birds.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-16. TAXON IDENTIFIERS * Wd : Q7256090 * EoL : 28559835 * NCBI : 1545690 This article relating to parrots is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Psittaculidae
Psittaculidae
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Herbivorous
A HERBIVORE is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material , for example foliage , for the main component of its diet. As a result of their plant diet, herbivorous animals typically have mouthparts adapted to rasping or grinding. Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass , tree bark , and other tough plant material. A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter , which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. This gut flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria living in the herbivores' intestines. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Definition and related terms * 3 Evolution of herbivory * 4 Food chain * 5 Feeding strategies * 6 Attacks and counter-attacks * 6.1 Herbivore offense * 6.2 Plant defense * 6.3 Herbivore–plant interactions per predator–prey theory * 7 Impacts * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links ETYMOLOGY Herbivore is the anglicized form of a modern Latin coinage, _herbivora,_ cited in Charles Lyell 's 1830 _ Principles of Geology ._ Richard Owen employed the anglicized term in an 1854 work on fossil teeth and skeletons. _Herbivora_ is derived from the Latin _herba_ meaning a small plant or herb, and _vora,_ from _vorare,_ to eat or devour
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order. Some taxa are accepted almost universally, while others are recognised only rarely. For some groups of organisms, consistent suffixes are used to denote that the rank is an order. The Latin suffix -(i)formes meaning "having the form of" is used for the scientific name of orders of birds and fishes , but not for those of mammals and invertebrates . The suffix -ales is for the name of orders of plants, fungi, and algae
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Psittaciformes
Cacatuoidea (cockatoos) Psittacoidea (true parrots) Strigopoidea ( New Zealand
New Zealand
parrots) Range of parrots, all species (red)PARROTS, also known as PSITTACINES /ˈsɪtəsaɪnz/ , are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order PSITTACIFORMES, found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three superfamilies: the Psittacoidea ("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea (cockatoos), and the Strigopoidea (New Zealand parrots). Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere , as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is in South America and Australasia . Characteristic features of parrots include a strong, curved bill , an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. Most parrots exhibit little or no sexual dimorphism in the visual spectrum. They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length. The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds, and other plant material. A few species sometimes eat animals and carrion , while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding on floral nectar and soft fruits
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Mexico
Coordinates : 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102 United Mexican States _Estados Unidos Mexicanos_ (Spanish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Himno Nacional Mexicano
Himno Nacional Mexicano
_ (English: "Mexican National Anthem") Capital and largest city Mexico City
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES None at federal level RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES* Spanish 68 native language groups
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